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Oklahoma School Readiness Reach-by-Risk, 2014 (ICPSR 35219)
Principal Investigator(s): Lazarte Alcala, Naneida, Oklahoma Department of Human Services; Schumacher, Krista, Oklahoma Department of Human Services
The Oklahoma School Readiness Reach-by-Risk study builds on the development of the Oklahoma School Readiness Risk Index (SRRI) in 2011 by including data on the scope of early childhood programs in each of the state's 77 counties. This research project seeks to analyze the prevalence of particular socio-demographic indicators of school readiness, as well as promote informed policy funding decisions related to early childhood education. The purpose of this study is to highlight counties where the risk for starting school unprepared to learn is high, yet opportunities for quality early childhood programs and services are low.
Within this study the researchers focused on prekindergarten students (with Hispanic background) who displayed signs of being unprepared to learn by examining two social constructs: risk and reach (identified by early childhood programs). Risk measures were assessed through a risk index comprised of 10 socioeconomic and demographic indicators found by empirical research to increase a child's risk of being unprepared for school.
The Reach measures were created by gathering data from early education programs, the state's universal prekindergarten program, early childhood home visitation programs, and child care services. Early childhood program reach was determined by analyzing the county-level service density of early childhood education and home visitation programs in addition to several aspects of child care services, such as provider quality ratings and enrollment of children with child care subsidies in quality facilities.
These data are freely available.
Lazarte Alcala, Naneida, and Krista Schumacher. Oklahoma School Readiness Reach-by-Risk, 2014. ICPSR35219-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-06-30. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35219.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35219.v1
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (90YE0149-01-01)
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: abused children, child development, child neglect, child welfare, educational assessment, poverty, race, risk assessment, risk factors, school readiness, socialization, socioeconomic status
Smallest Geographic Unit: Oklahoma counties
Unit of Observation: 77 counties in the state of Oklahoma
Universe: County-level data from Oklahoma on children who are under the age of six.
Data Types: administrative records data, aggregate data, census/enumeration data
Study Purpose: The purpose of the Oklahoma School Readiness Reach-by-Risk Report 2014, is to provide policy makers and other early childhood stakeholders with current data on factors that place children at risk of being unprepared for school and on the reach of services and programs that promote school readiness for each of the state's 77 counties.
Study Design: For each indicator, data at the state and county levels were collected from multiple secondary sources and reported as proportions of relevant populations (e.g., percent of live births to mothers with low levels of education). Data were statistically analyzed using multivariate techniques to create components, or "sets" of factors that most closely correlated with each other and that significantly explained school readiness, with third-grade reading proficiency used as a proxy of readiness. Reach was assessed by requesting data for early education programs, such as Head Start (HS), Early Head Start (EHS) and the state's universal prekindergarten program; early childhood home visitation programs, such as SoonerStart, the state's IDEA Part C - Early Intervention program; and child care services.
Time Method: Cross-sectional
Kind of Data: quantitative
- Oklahoma Association of Community Action Agencies. (2013).
- Oklahoma Department of Human Services (DHS), state fiscal year 2012.
- Oklahoma State Department of Education (OSDE), academic year (AY) 2009-2010; 2011-2012.
- Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH). Center for Health Statistics, Health Care Information, Vital Statistics, average for 2008 and 2009. http://www.health.ok.gov/ok2share
- U.S. Census, American Community Survey, Age by ratio of income to poverty level in past 12 months, 2007-2011 five-year estimates.
- U.S. Census, American Community Survey, Sex by age, American Indian or Alaska Native, 2007-2011 five-year estimates.
- U.S. Census, American Community Survey, Sex by age, Hispanic or Latino, 2007-2011 five-year estimates.
- U.S. Department of Education, EDFacts/Consolidated States Performance Report, 2010-2011.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau. (2012). Child Maltreatment 2011.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau. (2012). The AFCARS Report: Preliminary FY 2012 Estimates as of July 2013, No. 20. Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), federal fiscal year 2012.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Vital Statistics, Natality public-use data 2007-2011, on CDC WONDER Online Database, November 2013. Low maternal education, average for 2008 and 2009. http://wonder.cdc.gov/natality-current.html
Research Articles and Other Data Sources
- Mulligan, G. M., Hastedt, S., and McCarroll, J. C. (2012). First-time kindergartners in 2010-2011: First findings from the kindergarten rounds of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.
- Community Action Project (CAP) Tulsa, 2013-2014.
- Oklahoma Child Care Services, SFY 2013.
- Oklahoma Early Head Start programs, 2012-2013.
- Oklahoma Educare programs, 2012-2013.
- Oklahoma Head Start programs, 2012-2013.
- Oklahoma State Department of Education, 2012-2013.
- Oklahoma State Department of Education, fall enrollment, October 2012.
- Oklahoma State Department of Health, calendar year 2012.
Description of Variables:
Part one is devoted to the Risk indicator which measures are comprised of 18 variables. These variables contain data about child care, early education and child social services at the county-level. The variables largely measure county percentages of enrollment rates, service totals, and quality of care ratings within several of these programs.
Part two solely describes the Reach indicator which is comprised of 10 variables. These variables were assessed by requesting data for early education programs, such as Head Start (HS), Early Head Start (EHS) and the state's universal prekindergarten program; early childhood home visitation programs, such as Sooner-Start, the state's IDEA Part C Early Intervention Program; and child care services. Reach data are compared to overall risk for poor school readiness for each county, which highlights counties with the greatest need for early childhood education and child care services relative to risk.
- Performed consistency checks.
- Standardized missing values.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2014-06-30
- 2014-07-08 Edited the study title.
- Citations exports are provided above.
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