National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Justifying Violence: Attitudes of American Men, 1969 (ICPSR 3504)

Principal Investigator(s): Blumenthal, Monica D.; Kahn, Robert L.; Andrews, Frank M.


This study contains data on the attitudes of 1,374 American men aged 16-64 toward violence in 1969. The study was undertaken to examine the levels of violence that can be viewed as justified to bring about social control or social change. Also emphasized were the role of the respondents' personal values, their definitions of violence, and their identification with the groups involved in violence. Some of the open-ended questions in the structured interview probed the respondents' general concerns, their attitudes toward violence, and their views on the causes of and ways of preventing violence. In questions grouped into categories of "violence for social control" and "violence for social change", respondents were asked to react to situations involving protests and other disturbances such as hoodlum gang disturbances, students' protests, and Black protest demonstrations. Repondents' opinions were sought on the appropriate police actions in these situations and the frequency with which certain control measures should be utilized. Respondents were also asked in three different situations whether they believed change could be effected without action involving property damage or injury, or if change could only be effected with protests in which some people were killed. Demographic variables describe age, sex, date of birth, nationality, occupation, education, religion, and family income. A supplementary sample of Black men is also included in this study in order to permit separate analysis on the basis of race.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


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Study Description


Blumenthal, Monica D., Robert L. Kahn, and Frank M. Andrews. JUSTIFYING VIOLENCE: ATTITUDES OF AMERICAN MEN, 1969. Conducted by University of Michigan, Survey Research Center. 2nd ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1978.

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (GS2424)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    aggression, assault, attitudes, gang violence, males, perceptions, political violence, social change, social control, social values, violence, violent crime

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1969

Date of Collection:   

  • 1969

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    A total of 1,374 men aged 16-64, including a supplementary sample of Black men, living in dwelling units in the coterminous United States in 1969.

Data Source:

personal interviews

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-05-03

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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