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Citizenship, Democracy, and Drug-Related Violence (CIDENA, 2011) (ICPSR 34670)

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The survey Citizenship, Democracy, and Drug-Related Violence (CIDENA, 2011) was implemented with the goal of providing information towards understanding the complex relationship between society and drug-related violence in Mexico. Cognitive interviews, face-to-face interviews, and list experiments were utilized in Mexico. The survey was conducted in face-to-face interviews (at the residence of the interviewee) based on a sample of men and women over 18 years of age and residents of Mexico. The sample was representative nationwide of 7 states with different levels of violence: High (Chihuahua, Guerrero, Michoacán, and Nuevo León), Intermediate (Jalisco, and Estado de México), and Low (Distrito Federal). These states were selected according to their violence indexes (deaths associated with drug related violence reported in local newspapers). Demographic variables include age, sex, marital status, occupation, party affiliation, territories of residence, education, and income.

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Study Description


Collective for Security Analysis with Democracy A.C., Universidad Panamericana (Mexico). IPADE Business School. Center for the Study of Institutional Governance, and Sistemas de Inteligencia en Mercados y Opinión (Mexico). Citizenship, Democracy, and Drug-Related Violence (CIDENA, 2011). ICPSR34670-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-10-23. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34670.v1

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Agency for International Development (4935-012-11-008)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   crime, drugs, national elections, political affiliation, reactions to crime, security, social attitudes, victimization, violence, voter attitudes, voting behavior

Smallest Geographic Unit:   State

Geographic Coverage:   Chihuahua, Distrito Federal (Mexico), Estado de México, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacán, Nuevo León

Time Period:  

  • 2011

Date of Collection:  

  • 2011

Unit of Observation:   Individual, State

Universe:   Men and women over 18 years of age and residents of Mexico to date of survey

Data Types:   survey data


Study Purpose:   To gather public opinion on drug-related violence in states of Mexico, perceptions of the national economy and political behavior, and social capital through face-to-face interviews.

Study Design:   The public opinion survey consisted of 7,416 interviews based on a probabilistic sample design. The survey was implemented in areas with high, intermediate, and low levels of local violence. The survey was conducted by face-to-face interviews (at the residence of the interviewee) based on a sample men and women over 18 years of age and residents of Mexico. In Mexico face-to-face interviews are necessary because both telephone and internet have a very low rate of penetration.

Sample:   The sample design was based on a list of 64,934 electoral sections defined by the Federal Election Institute for 2011. The selection procedure was a complex, stratified and PPS random sampling design over electoral sections sampling framework (nominal listing 2011). It was a complex selection procedure due to the various stages; the first stage stratified the electoral sections by state. This stage was needed for the oversampling of the selected states. In the second stage 75 electoral sections were selected for: Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Estado de México, Jalisco, Michoacán, and Nuevo León, 68 for Guerrero, and 100 for the other 25 states with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling design. The results of this survey at a national level are accurate at the 95 percent confidence level plus or minus 1.1 percentage point. The sampling error for each state: (1) Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Estado de México, Jalisco, Michoacán, and Nuevo León: accurate at the 95 percent confidence level +/- 3.3 percent, (2) Guerrero: accurate at the 95 percent confidence level +/- 3.5 percent.

Time Method:   Cross-sectional

Weight:   Considering the methodology used for the sampling design of the study data weights were elaborated. These weights consider the probability of selection according to the sampling frame distributions by state, age, and gender. Due to these considerations the following weight correctors were established. The estimators weight observations by the inverse estimate of the selection probability. See Appendix: Weight Section of the Codebook for more information.

Mode of Data Collection:   cognitive assessment test, face-to-face interview

Response Rates:   The overall non-response rate was 8 percent. The survey had a response time between 20 to 45 minutes.

Presence of Common Scales:   list experiments

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


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