National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Integrating the Ion Mobility Spectrometer Into Drug Monitoring at the New Orleans Pretrial Diversion Program, 1996 (ICPSR 3213) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

This project was designed to evaluate the use of a drug detection instrument, the ion mobility spectrometer (IMS), and to integrate its use into an ongoing pretrial diversion program for nonviolent, first-time, drug-abusing offenders. The Pretrial Diversion Program in Orleans Parish, Louisiana, targeted offenders with limited arrest histories of nonviolent felony or misdemeanor violations. The majority of eligible participants were violators of simple drug possession statutes, primarily crack/cocaine or marijuana. Persons charged with drug distribution offenses were not eligible. In order to qualify for diversion, persons had to admit guilt regarding the acts for which they were arrested. The program was entirely voluntary. One of the unique aspects of this program was its aggressive use of drug testing, including urinalysis and hair analysis. This project evaluated the ability of the IMS to provide complete drug profile information to supervising agencies and assessed its usefulness to field staff engaged in drug monitoring duties. The project was based on the premise that enhanced information on offenders diverted into this program could create or improve several key aspects of program operation, such as client assessment, monitoring of compliance and progress, dispositional decision-making, client motivation, and staff morale. The study was designed to integrate the IMS into the normal operation of the New Orleans Pretrial Diversion Program with as little modification of existing treatment and supervision protocols as possible. Each client in the diversion program underwent an intensive intake assessment including an intake radioimmunoassay (RIA) hair assay and an additional RIA hair assay every 60 days. Each client was urine-tested at intake and assigned to a random test pool. The modified protocol for the project added an IMS-based scan or a hair specimen, skin wipe, and ten-second vacuum scan of clothing, hands, and axillae at intake. At each subsequent visit each client had a repeat IMS scan utilizing a skin swab and a scan of clothing or body area. Variables include self-reported cocaine use, self-reported marijuana use, IMS date, urinalysis date, hair assay results, urinalysis results, IMS detection, nicotine use, maximum amplitude, delta, cumulative amplitude, number of detections, whether the IMS showed a positive result, and the age, sex, and race of the client.

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

Dataset - Download All Files (1.7 MB)
Documentation:

Study Description

Citation

Mieczkowski, Tom, Rosemary Mumm, and Harry Connick. INTEGRATING THE ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETER INTO DRUG MONITORING AT THE NEW ORLEANS PRETRIAL DIVERSION PROGRAM, 1996. ICPSR03213-V1. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida [producer], 2001. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03213.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (96-IJ-CX-0001)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   criminal histories, diversion programs, drug abuse, drug offender profiles, drug testing, felony offenses, misdemeanor offenses, offenders, pretrial intervention, pretrial procedures, program evaluation, urinalysis

Geographic Coverage:   Louisiana, New Orleans, United States

Time Period:  

  • 1996

Date of Collection:  

  • 1996

Unit of Observation:   Tests.

Universe:   All offenders participating in the New Orleans Pretrial Diversion Program in 1996.

Data Types:   clinical data

Methodology

Study Purpose:   This project was designed to evaluate the use of a drug detection instrument, the ion mobility spectrometer (IMS), and to integrate its use into an ongoing pretrial diversion program for nonviolent, first-time, drug-abusing offenders. The Pretrial Diversion Program in Orleans Parish, Louisiana, targeted offenders with limited arrest histories of nonviolent felony or misdemeanor violations. One of the unique aspects of this program was its aggressive use of drug testing, including urinalysis and hair analysis. A random urinalysis testing protocol provided short-term monitoring of drug use, while hair assays permitted a relatively long-term evaluation of a person's exposure to and use of illegal drugs, especially cocaine. This project evaluated the ability of the IMS to provide complete drug profile information to supervising agencies and assessed its usefulness to field staff engaged in drug monitoring duties. The project was based on the premise that enhanced information on offenders diverted into this program could create or improve several key aspects of program operation, such as client assessment, monitoring of compliance and progress, dispositional decision-making, client motivation, and staff morale.

Study Design:   The study was designed to integrate the IMS into the normal operation of the New Orleans Pretrial Diversion Program with as little modification of existing treatment and supervision protocols as possible. The IMS is a highly sensitive analytic chemical detector. It is a "time of flight" instrument, based on the ionization of an unknown analyte, the introduction of the ionized material into a drift tube, and the detection and recording of the collision of the ionized material with a collector plate. The combination of the length of time of the material in the drift tube (the drift time) plotted with the energy detected by the collector plate produces a characteristic signature, called a plasmagram, which can be uniquely associated with a known material. The IMS was located on-site at the diversion program location that was housed within the New Orleans District Attorney's office complex. Each client in the diversion program underwent an intensive intake assessment including an intake radioimmunoassay (RIA) hair assay and an additional RIA hair assay every 60 days. Each client had a urine test at intake and was assigned to a random test pool. The modified protocol for the project added an IMS-based scan or a hair specimen, skin wipe, and ten-second vacuum scan of clothing, hands, and axillae at intake. At each subsequent visit each client had a repeat IMS scan utilizing a skin swab and a scan of clothing or body area. Clients had additional vacuum scans done when deemed appropriate by a counselor. The incentive for the offender was that upon successful completion of program requirements after a prescribed period of time (a minimum of six months for felonies and three months for misdemeanors), the charges were dismissed and the person did not appear in court. Violations of the program conditions resulted in program dismissal, at which time the case would reenter the normal judicial routing for prosecution.

Data Source:

urinalysis, RIA hair assays, and IMS drug tests

Description of Variables:   Variables include self-reported cocaine use, self-reported marijuana use, IMS date, urinalysis date, hair assay results, urinalysis results, IMS detection, nicotine use, maximum amplitude, delta, cumulative amplitude, number of detections, whether the IMS showed a positive result, and the age, sex, and race of the client.

Response Rates:   Not applicable.

Presence of Common Scales:   None.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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