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Data on International Election Monitoring: Three Global Datasets on Election Quality, Election Events and International Election Observation (ICPSR 31461)

Principal Investigator(s):


This data collection focuses on elections and election monitoring throughout the world. Dataset 1, Data on International Election Monitoring (DIEM), codes the assessement and activities of international election monitoring organizations to national-level legislative and presidential elections in 108 countries from 1980-2004. Dataset 2, Quality of Elections Data (QED), codes the quality of national-level legislative and presidential elections in 172 countries from 1978 to 2004. Dataset 3, Supplementary Election Data, includes supplementary information on all direct presidential and legislative elections in 182 countries from 1975-2004.

Access Notes

  • These data are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Because you are not logged in, we cannot verify that you will be able to download these data.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Data on International Election Monitoring - Download All Files (3.7 MB)
DS2:  Quality of Elections Data - Download All Files (3.3 MB)
DS3:  Supplementary Election Data - Download All Files (5.4 MB)

Study Description


Kelley, Judith. Data on International Election Monitoring: Three Global Datasets on Election Quality, Election Events and International Election Observation. ICPSR31461-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-08-29. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR31461.v2

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This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (0550111)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   campaign contributions, campaign funds, campaign strategies, elections, media coverage, mediation, political campaigns, political violence, presidential elections, runoff elections, voter fraud, voting behavior

Smallest Geographic Unit:   country

Geographic Coverage:   Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Fiji, France, Gambia, Georgia (Republic), German Democratic Republic, Ghana, Global, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Time Period:  

  • 1975--2004

Date of Collection:  

  • 2007--2009

Unit of Observation:   nation

Universe:   This data set codes the quality of national level legislative and presidential elections in 172 countries from 1978 to 2004

Data Types:   aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

Variables A1, SA1, and MAXA1 contained non-integer values which were changed to reflect the values provided in the supplied documentation as well as to allow labeling within STATA.

Variable @_MERGE was changed to MERGE for compatibility with SAS.

Users of these data are asked to include a citation to one of the following: Kelley, Judith. 2012. Monitoring Democracy: When International Election Observation Works and Why It Often Fails. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press. Kelley, Judith and Kolev, Kiril. "Election Quality and International Observation 1975-2004: Two New Datasets" (October 19, 2010).

For more information pertaining to the variable COW in parts 2 and 3, please refer to the Correlates of War Web site.

For additional information on Data on International Election Monitoring: Three Global Datasets on Election Quality, Election Events and International Election Observation, please refer to the Project on International Election Monitoring Web site.


Weight:   The data are not weighted

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2014-08-29 The P.I. has updated codes for several variables in Data Set 2, Quality of Elections Data, and Data Set 3 Supplementary Election Data. Documentation for Data Set 2, Quality of Elections Data, has also been updated.

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