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European Election Study, 1994 (ICPSR 3014)

Principal Investigator(s): Schmitt, Hermann; van der Eijk, Cees; Scholz, Evi; Klein, Michael


The European Election Study, 1994 (EES-94), is a study of the electorates of the 12 member states of the European Community: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The study focuses in particular on the fourth elections to the European Parliament conducted in June 1994 and is derived from questions asked in Eurobarometers 40-42. The questionnaires used in each country were identical, apart from unavoidable differences in party names. Topics include respondents' attitudes regarding important campaign issues, particularly those concerning the European Community and the 1994 European Election, voting behavior and vote intention in national elections, probability of voting for a particular party, ideological position and value orientation, and political interest. A significant portion of the study is devoted to European and/or national policy topics. Other major areas of investigation include knowledge of and attitudes toward the European Union, its institutions, and other member states. Demographic variables include age, gender, date of birth, education, marital status, size of household and status of housing, number of children at home, occupation, family income, and perception of social class.

Series: Eurobarometer Survey Series

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Study Description


Schmitt, Hermann, Cees van der Eijk, Evi Scholz, and Michael Klein. European Election Study, 1994. ICPSR03014-v1. Koeln, Germany: Zentralarchiv fuer Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2001. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03014.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03014.v1

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    campaign issues, elections, European Parliament, European Union, international politics, national interests, political interest, political parties, public opinion, voter attitudes, voting behavior

Geographic Coverage:    Belgium, Denmark, Europe, France, Germany, Global, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom

Time Period:   

  • 1993-10--1994-12

Date of Collection:   

  • 1993-10--1994-12

Universe:    Persons aged 15 and over residing in the 12 member nations of the European Union: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In the first pre-election study, the sample was restricted to people of the respective nationality of each country, while the other three waves cover all residents of each member nation.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The European Election Study, 1994, was conducted as a separately funded part of the Eurobarometer surveys, which are produced under the jurisdiction of the European Community's Directorate-General for Information, Communication, and Culture--Unit Surveys, Research, and Analyses division.


Sample:    Sample points were drawn with probability proportional to population size and population density in each EU country.

Restrictions: To provide funding agencies with essential information about the use of the data, each user of the data is requested to send two copies of each completed manuscript to: European Election Study Workgroup, c/o Steinmetz Archive, Herengracht 410-412, 1017 BX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.


Original ICPSR Release:   2001-03-09

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