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Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1990 (ICPSR 2)

Principal Investigator(s): Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research


This data collection provides the names of candidates, political party name and ICPSR party ID code, and the number of votes received by each candidate in the constituency for elections between 1788 and 1990. The data include county-level returns for over 90 percent of all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States representative (1824-1990), and United States senator (1912-1990). The dataset also includes returns for approximately two-thirds of all elections to the offices of president, governor, and United States representative for the period 1788-1823. Returns for one additional statewide office are included beginning with the 1968 elections. Also presented are 1990 data from the District of Columbia election for United States senator and United States representative. The offices of two senators and one representative were created by the "District of Columbia Statehood Constitutional Convention Initiative," which was approved by District voters in 1980. Elections for these offices were postponed until the 1990 general election. The three offices are currently local District positions, which will turn into federal offices if the District becomes a state.

Series: United States Historical Election Returns Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


DS1:  Data File - Download All Files (9.845 MB)
ASCII + SPSS Setup   
DS2:  SAS Data Definition Statements - Download All Files (0.149 MB)

ASCII + SAS Setup   
DS10:  ICPSR State and County Codes Based on 1960 FIPS Codes (Text File) - Download All Files (0.08 MB)

Study Description


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1990. ICPSR00002-v5. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1995. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00002.v5

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00002.v5

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (RO-5637-72-464)
  • National Endowment for the Humanities

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    candidates, constituencies, elections, political attitudes, political behavior, political parties

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1788--1990

Universe:    Candidates who ran for the offices of president, governor, and United States representative (1824-1990), United States senator (1912-1990), and one additional statewide office, usually attorney general or secretary of state (1968-1990).

Data Type(s):    aggregate data, survey data


Data Source:

official election returns provided by state governments

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-06-19

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