This study is provided by ICPSR. ICPSR provides leadership and training in data access, curation, and methods of analysis for a diverse and expanding social science research community.

Survey of Employment, Income, and Attitudes in Russia (SEIAR), January-March 1998 (ICPSR 2732)

Principal Investigator(s): Gerber, Theodore P.


The purpose of this study was to assess the ways in which recent economic and social changes in Russia, specifically those since the collapse of the Soviet system, have affected the social stratification of Russian society, the composition and nature of the Russian labor market, and Russian public opinion regarding the state of the Russian economy. The survey covered the population of the Russian Federation 16 years of age and older, excluding residents of four Caucasus republics and eight inaccessible regions of the Russian far north. Respondents were asked to complete a self-administered written questionnaire in the presence of an interviewer, with a portion of the survey administered directly by the interviewer. The main aim of the project was to gather information on respondents' social origins (including past affiliation with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), income and standard of living, activity or work history since 1990, and current attitudes toward the economy and market reforms. Specifically, respondents were asked about both their current and 1990 occupations and sources of income (and changes within that period), and their assessments of the current economic situation for their family, city, region, and Russia as a whole. They were also queried about personal experiences with wage delays and compulsory unpaid leave, and whether they thought current and planned market reforms would eventually improve their lives. Demographic information on respondents includes age, sex, marital status, household size, education, parental background, income, and current employment status.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


Dataset - Download All Files (7.436 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   

Study Description


Gerber, Theodore P. SURVEY OF EMPLOYMENT, INCOME, AND ATTITUDES IN RUSSIA (SEIAR), JANUARY-MARCH 1998. ICPSR version. Moscow, Russia: All-Russian Center for Public Opinion and Market Research (VTsIOM) [producer], 1998. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1999. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02732.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02732.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SBR-9729225)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    attitudes, economic change, economic conditions, employment, income, labor markets, market economy, occupations, public opinion, social change, standard of living

Geographic Coverage:    Russia, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1998-01--1998-03

Universe:    Residents of the Russian Federation aged 16 years or older, excluding residents of four Caucasus republics and eight inaccessible regions of the Russian far north.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) Only questions circled by the Principal Investigator on the data collection instrument are included in this study. (2) The codebook (in English) and data collection instrument (in Russian) are provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided through the ICPSR Website on the Internet.


Sample:    Multistage stratified random sampling was used. For details on the sampling procedure, users should consult the Technical Report in the codebook.

Data Source:

self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews


Original ICPSR Release:   1999-07-16

Related Publications



Metadata Exports

If you're looking for collection-level metadata rather than an individual metadata record, please visit our Metadata Records page.

Download Statistics