National Addiction and HIV Data Archive Program

This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Services Research Outcomes Study, 1995-1996: [United States] (ICPSR 2691)

Alternate Title:   SROS, 1995-1996

Principal Investigator(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies


The Services Research Outcomes Study (SROS) sought to answer questions about drug treatment efficacy and to describe client characteristics. The study was designed to provide (1) a 1990 cohort of clients to use as baseline for possible changes in treatment outcomes following increased funding to the national treatment system in the 1990s, (2) a before-to-after comparison to measure outcomes of treatment provided in 1990, (3) a follow-up of drug treatment clients five years after treatment to assess the level of sustained improvements in abstinence, and (4) a first look at multiple treatment episodes before and after treatment in a 1990 population.

Part 1 is the Facility Director Interviews and covered topics such as facility staff and organization, revenue and charges, staff hours and compensation, costs, and program characteristics.

Part 2 is the Client Records Abstractions Data, which examined the client records of 2,222 individuals discharged during 1989-1990. Information was abstracted on demographic characteristics of clients, criminal justice involvement, medical conditions, drug history including intravenous drug use, urine test results, drug treatment history, treatment services, and discharge and billing information.

Part 3 consists of the Client Follow-Up Interviews, and was conducted during 1995 and 1996. This part covered the clients' entire life span, with special attention to their behavior and circumstances during the five years before entry to the index (SROS) treatment in 1989-1990 and after leaving that treatment until the time of the interview. Additional questions were asked on patterns of alcohol and drug consumption, criminal activity, employment, health, social support, and other behavior relevant to treatment goals. Drugs included cocaine, crack, heroin, nontreatment methadone, other opiates/synthetics, barbiturates, benzodiazapine, other sedatives/hypnotics, methamphetamines, other amphetamines, marijuana/hash/THC, PCP/LSD, other hallucinogens, inhalants, over-the-counter medications, and alcohol.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


DS1:  Facility Director Interview Data - Download All Files (1.688 MB)
SAS    SPSS    Stata    ASCII    Excel/TSV
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup    Stata Setup   
DS2:  Client Records Abstraction Data - Download All Files (10.72 MB)
SAS    SPSS    Stata    ASCII    Excel/TSV
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup    Stata Setup   
DS3:  Client Follow-Up Interview Data - Download All Files (37.512 MB)
SAS    SPSS    Stata    ASCII    Excel/TSV
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup    Stata Setup   

Study Description


United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. Services Research Outcomes Study, 1995-1996: [United States]. ICPSR02691-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-10-29.

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (271-91-8321)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    alcohol abuse, criminal histories, demographic characteristics, drug testing, drug treatment, drug use, employment, mental health, physical health, treatment facilities, treatment outcomes, treatment programs, urinalysis

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1995--1996

Date of Collection:   

  • 1995--1996

Unit of Observation:    individual, facility

Universe:    (1) The 120 drug treatment facilities participating in Phase II of the Drug Services Research Study (DSRS), and (2) the clients discharged from those facilities in the 12 months ending August 31, 1990.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Produced by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) in Chicago, IL.


Sample:    A representative probability sample was drawn from a comprehensive list of organized substance abuse treatment programs for the Drug Services Research Study (DSRS). The DSRS collected basic facility-level information and in Phase II successfully abstracted 2,222 client records of individuals discharged during 1989-1990 from 120 randomly-selected, cooperating treatment facilities. Program types included hospital inpatient, residential, outpatient methadone, and outpatient nonmethadone. The SROS was designed as a client outcome study based on the DSRS program sample, and 99 of the original 120 treatment facilities participated in SROS (82.5 percent). Two client samples were used: (1) the 1,706 clients discharged from these 99 Phase II DSRS facilities in the 12 months ending August 31, 1990, whose client records were abstracted for the DSRS, and (2) a supplemental sample of 1,341 clients discharged in the same time frame from the 99 facilities. A total of 1,799 interviews were completed, for a client response rate of 59 percent.


Only Part 3: Client Follow-Up Interview Data has weights in the data file.

Three separate weights were constructed for each observation (WT1, WT2, and WT3) to aid in the production of unbiased population estimates.

WT1 - deceased are treated as respondents

WT2 - deceased are treated as non-respondents

WT3 - deceased are treated as ineligible

WT3 was used in the client-level analyses done by NORC.

Data Source:

personal interviews, client records, and facility records

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Restrictions: Users are reminded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that these data are to be used solely for statistical analysis and reporting of aggregated information and not for the investigation of specific individuals or organizations.


Original ICPSR Release:   2000-05-17

Version History:

  • 2008-10-29 New files were added. These files included one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, and Stata supplemental syntax files, and a tab-delimited ASCII data file.
  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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DS3: Client Follow-Up Interview Data

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