National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Evaluation of the New York City Department of Probation's Drug Treatment Initiative, 1991-1994 (ICPSR 2652)

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

This study was undertaken to evaluate the New York City Department of Probation's initiative to place clients in specialized Substance Abuse Verification and Enforcement (SAVE) units for treatment and management. The main analytical strategy of this study was to determine whether clients who were appropriately matched to outpatient drug treatment were less likely to recidivate after treatment in this modality. The focus of the research was not so much on developing powerful prediction models, but rather on determining whether outpatient drug treatment was appropriate and effective for certain types of probationers. The evaluation research involved an in-depth analysis of a sample of 1,860 probationers who were sentenced between September 1991-September 1992 and referred to contracting outpatient drug treatment programs one or more times as of December 31, 1993. The following types of data were collected: (1) the New York City Department of Probation's demographic and drug use information, obtained during the presentence investigation and at intake to probation, (2) the Department of Probation's Central Placement Unit (CPU) database records for each referral made through the CPU, as well as monthly progress reports filled out by the treatment programs on each probationer admitted to drug treatment, (3) the New York State Department of Criminal Justice Statistics' data on criminal histories, and (4) probation officers' reports on whether clients were referred to treatment, the kind of treatment modality to which they were referred, and the dates of admission and discharge. Demographic and socioeconomic variables include age at first arrest and sentencing, gender, race or ethnicity, marital status, family composition, educational attainment, and employment status. Other variables include drug use history (e.g., age at which drugs were first used, if the client's family members used drugs, if the client was actively using heroin, cocaine, or alcohol at time of intake into treatment), criminal history (e.g., age at first arrest, number of arrests, types of crimes, prior convictions, and prior probation and jail sentences), and drug treatment history (e.g., number and types of prior times in drug treatment, months since last treatment program, number of admissions to a CPU program, and number of AIDS education programs attended).

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

Dataset - Download All Files (3.4 MB)
Documentation:

Study Description

Citation

Falkin, Gregory P., Shiela Straus, Timothy Bohen, Douglas Young, and Laura Winterfield. EVALUATION OF THE NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF PROBATION'S DRUG TREATMENT INITIATIVE, 1991-1994. ICPSR02652-v1. New York, NY: National Development and Research Institutes, Inc./New York City Department of Probation/Vera Institute of Justice, Inc./New York City Criminal Justice Agency, Inc. [producers], 1999. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02652.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-0056)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   criminal histories, drug abuse, drug treatment, family history, probation services, probationers, program evaluation, recidivism, recidivism prediction, treatment outcomes, treatment programs

Geographic Coverage:   New York (state), New York City, United States

Time Period:  

  • 1991--1994

Date of Collection:  

  • 1994

Unit of Observation:   Individuals.

Universe:   Probationers referred to contracting outpatient drug treatment programs in New York City.

Data Types:   administrative records data

Methodology

Study Purpose:   This study was undertaken to evaluate the New York City Department of Probation's initiative to place clients in specialized Substance Abuse Verification and Enforcement (SAVE) units for treatment and management. At the time, probation departments throughout the country were struggling with large caseloads of drug-involved offenders. This was especially true in areas such as New York City, where drug-related arrests had risen sharply and alternatives to incarceration had been expanded to alleviate overcrowding in jails and prisons. Many community corrections agencies had established specialized or intensive drug supervision units that monitored clients' drug use with urine testing and referred those who tested positive to drug treatment programs. In 1989, the New York City Department of Probation established Substance Abuse Verification and Enforcement (SAVE) units. These specialized units were created to provide closer supervision of high-risk cocaine-abusing probationers by having lower caseloads than regular units and by developing stronger linkages with community-based drug treatment programs. In 1991, the department created a Central Placement Unit (CPU), which contracted with nine outpatient drug-free treatment programs for treatment slots. Referrals were made through the CPU, which operated like an 800-number reservation service that probation officers could call in order to place clients in contracting treatment programs. The main analytical strategy of this study was to determine whether clients who were appropriately matched to outpatient drug treatment were less likely to recidivate after treatment in this modality. The focus of the research was not so much on developing powerful prediction models, but rather on determining whether outpatient drug treatment was appropriate and effective for certain types of probationers. The study aimed to answer the question: Is outpatient drug treatment capable of reducing recidivism among a significant number of probationers?

Study Design:   The evaluation research involved an in-depth analysis of a sample of 1,860 probationers who were sentenced between September 1991 and September 1992 and referred to contracting outpatient drug treatment programs one or more times as of December 31, 1993. The following types of data were collected: (1) the New York City Department of Probation's demographic and drug use information, obtained during the presentence investigation and at intake to probation, (2) the Department of Probation's Central Placement Unit (CPU) database records for each referral made through the CPU, as well as monthly progress reports filled out by the treatment programs on each probationer admitted to drug treatment, (3) the New York State Department of Criminal Justice Statistics' data on criminal histories, and (4) probation officers' reports on whether clients were referred to treatment, the kind of treatment modality to which they were referred, and the dates of admission and discharge. Demographic and socioeconomic variables include age at first arrest and sentencing, gender, race or ethnicity, marital status, family composition, educational attainment, and employment status. Other variables include drug use history (e.g., age at which drugs were first used, if the client's family members used drugs, if the client was actively using heroin, cocaine, or alcohol at time of intake into treatment), criminal history (e.g., age at first arrest, number of arrests, types of crimes, prior convictions, and prior probation and jail sentences), and drug treatment history (e.g., number and types of prior times in drug treatment, months since last treatment program, number of admissions to a CPU program, and number of AIDS education programs attended).

Sample:   Probationers who were sentenced between September 1991-September 1992 and referred to contracting outpatient drug treatment programs one or more times as of December 31, 1993.

Data Source:

administrative records

Description of Variables:   Demographic and socioeconomic variables include age at first arrest and sentencing, gender, race or ethnicity, marital status, family composition, educational attainment, and employment status. Other variables include drug use history (e.g., age at which drugs were first used, if the client's family members used drugs, if the client was actively using heroin, cocaine, or alcohol at time of intake into treatment), criminal history (e.g., age at first arrest, number of arrests, types of crimes, prior convictions, and prior probation and jail sentences), and drug treatment history (e.g., number and types of prior times in drug treatment, months since last treatment program, number of admissions to a CPU program, and number of AIDS education programs attended).

Response Rates:   Not applicable

Presence of Common Scales:   None

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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