National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: Hate Crime Data, 1994 [Record-Type Files] (ICPSR 23960)
Alternate Title: UCR Hate Crime, 1994
Principal Investigator(s): United States Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation
In response to a growing concern about hate crimes, the United States Congress enacted the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990. The Act requires the attorney general to establish guidelines and collect, as part of the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, data "about crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity, including where appropriate the crimes of murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated assault, simple assault, intimidation, arson, and destruction, damage or vandalism of property." Hate crime data collection was required by the Act to begin in calendar year 1990 and to continue for four successive years. In September 1994, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act amended the Hate Crime Statistics Act to add disabilities, both physical and mental, as factors that could be considered a basis for hate crimes. Although the Act originally mandated data collection for five years, the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996 amended the collection duration "for each calendar year," making hate crime statistics a permanent addition to the UCR program. As with the other UCR data, law enforcement agencies contribute reports either directly or through their state reporting programs. Information contained in the data includes number of victims and offenders involved in each hate crime incident, type of victims, bias motivation, offense type, and location type.
These data are freely available.
United States Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: Hate Crime Data, 1994 [Record-Type Files]. ICPSR23960-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-12-23. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR23960.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR23960.v1
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: arrests, crime rates, crime reporting, crime statistics, disabilities, discrimination, ethnicity, hate crimes, homophobia, law enforcement, offenses, prejudice, racial tensions, religion, Uniform Crime Reports, violence
Smallest Geographic Unit: state, county, jurisdiction
Geographic Coverage: United States
Date of Collection:
Universe: Hate crime incidents reported by law enforcement agencies in the United States.
Data Types: event/transaction data
Data Collection Notes:
The original hierarchical file has been split into two files: a Batch Header File and an Incident Record File. The Batch Header File contains a record for each law enforcement agency whether or not they reported an incident. The Batch Header File variables are merged into the Incident Record File for those agencies that reported an incident.
Each victim-type variable has been split into eight separate flag variables to record each victim type. Previously, the variables were eight-character strings that contained the first letter of each victim type in any order.
Mode of Data Collection: computer-assisted self interview (CASI), self-enumerated questionnaire
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2008-12-23
Related Publications (see Notes)
- Citations exports are provided above.
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