National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004 [United States] (ICPSR 21140)
Principal Investigator(s): Davis, Robert C., Police Foundation; Ortiz, Christopher, Vera Institute of Justice; Rowe, Robert, American Society for Industrial Security; Broz, Joseph, Midwest Institute for Research; Rigakos, George, Carlton University; Collins, Pam, University of Eastern Kentucky
The purpose of this project was to assess the level of security in large indoor shopping malls. The researchers administered surveys to the security directors of the nation's largest indoor retail malls. The researchers sent letters with surveys attached, to 1,372 security directors of enclosed retail malls across the country, which were at least 250,000 square feet in size. A total of 120 completed surveys were returned. The survey instrument was divided into the following nine sections: (1) Hiring Standards, (2) Training, (3) Security Budget, (4) Human Surveillance Strategies, (5) Access Control Plans, (6) Technological Enhancements, (7) Emergency Preparedness Procedures, (8) Relations with the Public Sector, and (9) Opinions about Terrorist Threat.
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions ; consult the restrictions note to learn more. You can apply online for access to the data. A login is required to apply for access. (Instructions on YouTube.)
A downloadable version of data for this study is available however, certain identifying information in the downloadable version may have been masked or edited to protect respondent privacy. Additional data not included in the downloadable version are available in a restricted version of this data collection. For more information about the differences between the downloadable data and the restricted data for this study, please refer to the codebook notes section of the PDF codebook. Users interested in obtaining restricted data must complete and sign a Restricted Data Use Agreement, describe the research project and data protection plan, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.
Davis, Robert C., Christopher Ortiz, Robert Rowe, Joseph Broz, George Rigakos, and Pam Collins. PREPAREDNESS OF LARGE RETAIL MALLS TO PREVENT AND RESPOND TO TERRORIST ATTACK, 2004 [UNITED STATES]. ICPSR21140-v1. Washington, DC: Police Foundation [producer], 2006. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2007-12-18. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR21140.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR21140.v1
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2003-IJ-CX-1017)
Scope of Study
Smallest Geographic Unit: none
Geographic Coverage: United States
Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation: mall
Universe: Enclosed retail malls across the United States having at least 250,000 square feet in 2004.
Data Types: survey data
Data Collection Notes:
Data from the survey of state homeland security advisers, the site visits to eight malls in the United States and two malls in Israel, and the analysis of state statutes regulating private security are not available as part of this collection.
Study Purpose: The purpose of this project was to assess the level of security in large indoor shopping malls as well as the associated issues of training and legislation of private security forces. The researchers evaluated the degree to which malls had become better prepared to respond to terrorist attacks in the aftermath of September 11, 2001.
Study Design: The researchers administered surveys to the security directors of the nation's largest indoor retail malls. In 2004, the researchers sent letters with surveys attached, to 1,372 security directors of enclosed retail malls across the country, which were at least 250,000 square feet in size. Initially, after sending surveys that were written on American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) letterhead, the researchers received 32 completed surveys. Several security directors called and told the researchers that they had been instructed by their parent organizations not to cooperate with the survey. These large mall owners were members of the Security Committee of the International Council of Shopping Centers. After sending a follow-up letter on National Institute of Justice letterhead several weeks later, a total of 120 surveys were completed.
Sample: The researchers sent letters with surveys attached, to 1,372 security directors of enclosed retail malls across the United States, which were at least 250,000 square feet in size. The researchers did not observe significant differences in response rates either by size of mall or region of the country (East Coast, South, Midwest, West, or West Coast).
Weight: Not applicable.
Mode of Data Collection: mail questionnaire
Data were obtained from mail surveys.
Description of Variables: The survey instrument was divided into the following nine sections: (1) Hiring Standards, (2) Training, (3) Security Budget, (4) Human Surveillance Strategies, (5) Access Control Plans, (6) Technological Enhancements, (7) Emergency Preparedness Procedures, (8) Relations with the Public Sector, and (9) Opinions about Terrorist Threat. Variables in Section 1, Hiring Standards, include minimum qualifications, background checks, and changes in hiring standards since September 11. Section 2, Training, contains variables on the amount/type of training and how that has changed since September 11, the organization that provides the training, and the adequacy of training. Section 3, Security Budget, includes information on the number of security staff and their salaries as well as the expenditure of funds since September 11. Section 4, Human Surveillance Strategies, contains items pertaining to stated security goals and objectives with respect to protection from terrorist attack, the utilization of undercover staff, the scrutiny of potential terrorists, and changes in these areas since September 11. Variables in Section 5, Access Control Plans, include the public availability of facility plans or blueprints, specific plans to limit access to the mall or to sensitive areas inside the mall in case of perceived threat or change in the national alert level, whether new plans had been put in place and whether the availability of plans had changed since September 11. Section 6, Technological Enhancements, contains items relating to the usage of surveillance cameras, passive barriers, explosive-resistant trashcans, and window film, as well as items pertaining to the detection of biological or chemical agents, explosives, contaminants, and the Department of Homeland Security Buffer Zone Protection Program. Variables included in Section 7, Emergency Preparedness Procedures, include written protocols for security staff, emergency response plans, exercises to rehearse protocols with first responders, and coordination with other agencies with respect to emergency preparedness protocols and procedures. Relations with the Public Sector, Section 8, contains items pertaining to involvement with the state homeland security adviser, state law enforcement agencies, local law enforcement agencies, and the Department of Homeland Security. Variables in Section 9, Opinions about Terrorist Threat, include the importance of various events to daily security activities, the type of terrorist attack that is perceived most likely, and the criticality of various security measures.
Response Rates: Of the 1,372 surveys mailed, a total of 120 surveys were completed and returned for a response rate of 9 percent.
Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2007-12-18
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