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Woman and Child Wage Earners: Adrift, 1907 [New York City and Philadelphia] (ICPSR 20700)

Principal Investigator(s): Goldin, Claudia, Harvard University


This data collection contains information on women workers living apart from their families, or "adrift," in New York City and Philadelphia. It is similar in origin to the WOMAN AND CHILD WAGE EARNERS (ICPSR 20702), WOMAN AND CHILD WAGE EARNERS, MARRIED (ICPSR 20720), and WOMAN AND CHILD WAGE EARNERS, WORKING WOMEN IN NEW YORK CITY LIVING AT HOME (ICPSR 20721) data collections. Somewhat more comprehensive information exists for it than for the ICPSR 20721 sample, which is very similar in content. The data for this sample were collected for women living apart from their families of origin. Variables include: age, work experience, ethnicity, average weekly earnings, and whether the place of work was a store or manufacturing enterprise. In addition to these variables there is information on years of schooling, weekly expenditures for car fare, shelter and food, and remittances home or contributions to other relatives. It should be emphasized that the respondents were asked about their years of schooling. The education variable, therefore, is not derived but was given by the women, which is quite extraordinary for the period. Additionally, there is no information on the marital status of these women. It is presumed that they are either unmarried, widowed, or divorced (or separated) because they are all living apart from other family members.

Series: Woman and Child Wage Earners Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Goldin, Claudia. Woman and Child Wage Earners: Adrift, 1907 [New York City and Philadelphia]. ICPSR20700-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-01-03. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20700.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20700.v1

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    educational background, family work relationship, labor force, wage earners, women, work, working women

Geographic Coverage:    New York (state), New York City, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States

Time Period:   

  • 1907

Unit of Observation:    individual

Universe:    Women workers in New York City and Philadelphia in 1907, living apart from their families.

Data Type(s):    census/enumeration data


Sample:    See US Senate Documents, REPORT ON CONDITION OF WOMAN AND CHILD WAGE-EARNERS IN THE U.S. IN 19 VOLUMES, VOLS. 86-104 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1910-1911).

Data Source:

See: US Senate Documents, REPORT ON CONDITION OF WOMAN AND CHILD WAGE-EARNERS IN THE U.S. IN 19 VOLUMES, Vols. 86-104 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1910-1911). This Senate report is a 19-volume study of four primary industries and various related subjects. The information in this file was taken from Volume 5 of the report. This volume concerned women living apart from their families, or "adrift," as the social reform movement termed their state.

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   2008-01-03

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