National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Evaluation of Drug Treatment Programs at the State Correctional Institution in Chester, Pennsylvania, 2003-2004 (ICPSR 20348) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment programs at a specialized treatment prison, the State Correctional Institution (SCI) at Chester, Pennsylvania. The Chester prison is a 1,215-bed medium security prison for male inmates with a documented history of substance abuse. Programs included an intensive, 12-month therapeutic community (TC) drug treatment for high-need inmates and a 12-month outpatient (OP) program for inmates requiring less intensive treatment. Inmates who met eligibility criteria for the Chester facility were randomly assigned to the TC (n = 347) or OP (n = 384) program. The researchers utilized individual measures and outcome measures in this study.

Access Notes

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Dataset(s)

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Study Description

Citation

Welsh, Wayne N. EVALUATION OF DRUG TREATMENT PROGRAMS AT THE STATE CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION IN CHESTER, PENNSYLVANIA, 2003-2004. ICPSR20348-v1. Philadelphia, PA: Wayne N. Welsh, Temple University [producer], 2007. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2007-12-12. doi:10.3886/ICPSR20348.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2002-RT-BX-1002)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   correctional facilities, drug treatment, inmates, program evaluation, residential programs, substance abuse, substance abuse treatment, treatment facilities, treatment outcomes, treatment programs

Smallest Geographic Unit:   None

Geographic Coverage:   Chester, Pennsylvania, United States

Time Period:  

  • 2003-01-13--2004-03-23

Date of Collection:  

  • 2003-01-13--2004-03-23

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   All inmates transferred to the State Correctional Institution in Chester, Pennsylvania, between January 13, 2003, and March 23, 2004.

Data Types:   administrative records data, survey data, and observational data

Data Collection Notes:

Data from the alcohol or other drug (AOD) program census, staff interview form, inmate interview form, and observation checklist form are not available as part of this collection.

Methodology

Study Purpose:   The purpose of this project was to evaluate the alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment programs at a specialized treatment prison, the State Correctional Institution (SCI) at Chester, Pennsylvania. The study attempted to address some of the gaps and questions in the current literature surrounding the effectiveness of prison-based therapeutic community (TC) drug treatment through the examination of short-term, intermediate, and long-term outcomes of a prison-based, TC drug treatment program. The goal of this study was to inform agencies about designing, implementing, evaluating, and revising programs that address the AOD treatment needs of offenders and ex-offenders.

Study Design:  

The Chester prison is a 1,215-bed medium security prison for male inmates with a documented history of substance abuse. Programs included an intensive, 12-month therapeutic community (TC) drug treatment for high-need inmates and a 12-month outpatient (OP) program for inmates requiring less intensive treatment. Graduates of both programs were required to complete a mandatory, six-month aftercare program. Inmates who met eligibility criteria for Chester were randomly assigned to the TC (n = 347) or OP (n = 384) program. The OP program provided the comparison group since a no-treatment control group was not feasible. The TC, however, was much more intensive (i.e., 1,300 v. 150 total hours of treatment), and the TC was based upon a well-integrated and structured treatment model that combined critical elements of peer support and professional counseling (individual and group). This randomized, "response-dosage" design compared different levels of treatment, but the research subjects in the two groups were equivalent.

All inmates transferred to the Chester facility as of the study start date were approached and asked to participate in the study. Inmates were informed that their decision to participate or not would have no effect on their treatment or any decision regarding their release. Those who agreed to participate were asked to sign a Subject Consent Form.

The researchers utilized individual measures and outcome measures in this study. Specifically, individual measures included the Texas Christian University (TCU) Drug Screen, the TCU Self Rating Form (SRF), the TCU Resident Evaluation of Self and Treatment (REST) form, and the TCU Counselor Rating of Client (CRC) form. The TCU Drug Screen II is a screening tool used to determine the overall level of drug use and dependency of an individual. The TCU Drug Screen II was administered by treatment counselors upon the inmates' reception at Chester. Upon reception, counselors also administered the TCU Self Rating Form (SRF), which includes four measures of treatment motivation: problem recognition, desire for help, treatment readiness, and external pressures. Subjects were asked to complete the TCU Resident Evaluation of Self and Treatment (REST) form at 3 time periods (1 month after admission, 6 months after admission, and 12 months after admission). Treatment counselors were asked to complete the TCU Counselor Rating of Client (CRC) form for each TC inmate on their caseload at 3 time periods (1 month after admission, 6 months after admission, and 12 months after admission).

Three main types of post-release outcome data were collected:

  • Reincarceration data
  • Rearrest data
  • Drug testing and parole data

Sample:   To obtain their sampling frame, the researchers initially planned on recruiting subjects for a 12-month time period. The researchers extended the original 12-month subject recruitment period for 3 months to make up for the shortfall in admissions and ensure a reasonable statistical power (.80) for the study. Power analysis indicated that a minimum sample of 600 (300 TC, 300 OP) was required to achieve a statistical power of .80. By extending the recruitment period by 3 months, a total of 843 inmates were admitted between January 13, 2003, and March 23, 2004. Once all refusals, overrides, and removals from the institution were excluded, a total sample of 731 inmates remained. The proportions of inmates randomly assigned to TC and OP were fairly even, with 347 (47 percent) of the inmates designated for TC, and 384 (53 percent) designated for OP.

Weight:   None

Mode of Data Collection:   record abstracts, face-to-face interview, paper and pencil interview (PAPI), self-enumerated questionnaire

Data Source:

Data were obtained from the following instruments and/or data sources:

  • Department of Corrections (DOC) Databases
  • Texas Christian University (TCU) Drug Screen II
  • Texas Christian University (TCU) Resident Evaluation of Self and Treatment (REST) Administration
  • Texas Christian University (TCU) Self Rating Form (SRF)
  • Texas Christian University (TCU) Counselor Rating of Client (CRC)
  • Gaudenzia program records
  • Department of Corrections (DOC) Inmate Records System
  • Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency (PCCD)
  • Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole (PBPP)
  • Correctional Plan Evaluation (CPE)

Description of Variables:   Variables include Chester reception date, age, current and prior offenses, offense severity, minimum and maximum release date, institutional violence, and TCU Drug Screen II total score. Scores on the problem recognition, desire for help, treatment readiness, and external pressures scales from the TCU Self Rating Form (SRF) are also included. Eight items from the Counselor Rating of Client (CRC) form were measured at three time periods. SRC items include therapeutic engagement, rapport with others, denial, psychological problems, self confrontation, life skills development, family, and financial management. A total of 18 items from the Residential Evaluation of Self and Treatment (REST) Administration were also measured at 3 time periods. REST items include self-esteem, depression, anxiety, self efficacy, hostility, risk taking, social conformity, treatment readiness, external pressures, therapeutic engagement, personal progress, trust group, program staff, counselor rapport, counselor competence, program structure, program sessions, and peer support. Other variables include the difference in score between Time 1 and Time 3 for the 8 CRC items and the 18 REST variables. A total of 5 variables were included from the Correctional Plan Evaluation (CPE), 13 variables were included from the Department of Corrections (DOC) databases and inmate records system, and 7 variables were included from the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency. The type of release, date discharged from the Chester facility, participation in aftercare treatment, successful or unsuccessful inmate completion of treatment, and the length of time in treatment are also variables that are included in this study. A total of 20 variables relate to drug tests during the prerelease period and a total of 17 variables pertain to drug tests while on parole. Race, employment status, case type, current status on parole, Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole (PBPP) level of supervision, and deletion code comprise other variables. A total of five variables relate to restrictive housing unit (RHU) assignments. Final program assignment, override, motivation, and risk are additional variables in this study.

Response Rates:   The overall participation rate for the research study was 95 percent (790 out of 831 admissions, excluding inmates who were removed from the institution prior to being approached for subject recruitment). Up to the end of the subject recruitment period, 59 of 831 admissions (7.1 percent) were designated for overrides. A total of 38 individuals were removed from the study because they refused to participate, and 3 individuals were removed from the study because they were serving life sentences.

Presence of Common Scales:   Scales used were the Texas Christian University (TCU) Resident Evaluation of Self and Treatment (REST) Psychological Functioning Scales and Motivational Scales, the Texas Christian University Counselor Rating of Client (CRC) treatment scales, the Texas Christian University Self Rating Form (SRF) motivational scales, and the TCU Drug Screen II.

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