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United States Historical Election Returns, 1824-1968 (ICPSR 1)

Principal Investigator(s): Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

Summary:

This collection of historical election data contains state files that list county-level returns for over 90 percent of all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States senator, and United States representative from 1824 through 1968. The data files include returns for all parties and candidates (as well as write-in and scattering votes if available for individual states), and for special elections as well as regularly-scheduled contests. Over 1,000 individual party names and many additional unaffiliated candidates are included.

Series: United States Historical Election Returns Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.

Dataset(s)

DS1:  Election Returns for Connecticut, 1824-1860 - Download All Files (0.125 MB)
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DS2:  Election Returns for Connecticut, 1861-1904 - Download All Files (0.183 MB)
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DS3:  Election Returns for Connecticut, 1906-1942 - Download All Files (0.176 MB)
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DS4:  Election Returns for Connecticut, 1944-1968 - Download All Files (0.124 MB)
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DS5:  Election Returns for Maine, 1824-1873 - Download All Files (0.219 MB)
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DS6:  Election Returns for Maine, 1874-1902 - Download All Files (0.132 MB)
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DS7:  Election Returns for Maine, 1906-1944 - Download All Files (0.204 MB)
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DS8:  Election Returns for Maine, 1946-1968 - Download All Files (0.113 MB)
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DS9:  Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1824-1855 - Download All Files (0.198 MB)
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DS10:  Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1856-1895 - Download All Files (0.206 MB)
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DS11:  Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1896-1928 - Download All Files (0.204 MB)
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DS12:  Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1930-1964 - Download All Files (0.18 MB)
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DS13:  Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1964-1968 - Download All Files (0.023 MB)
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DS14:  Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1824-1871 - Download All Files (0.173 MB)
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DS15:  Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1872-1875 - Download All Files (0.034 MB)
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DS16:  Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1876-1918 - Download All Files (0.16 MB)
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DS17:  Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1920-1926 - Download All Files (0.044 MB)
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DS18:  Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1928-1964 - Download All Files (0.172 MB)
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DS19:  Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1966-1968 - Download All Files (0.025 MB)
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DS20:  Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1824-1866 - Download All Files (0.162 MB)
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DS21:  Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1867-1899 - Download All Files (0.159 MB)
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DS22:  Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1900-1903 - Download All Files (0.027 MB)
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DS23:  Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1904-1938 - Download All Files (0.148 MB)
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DS24:  Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1940-1944 - Download All Files (0.034 MB)
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DS25:  Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1946-1968 - Download All Files (0.101 MB)
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DS26:  Election Returns for Vermont, 1824-1866 - Download All Files (0.17 MB)
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DS27:  Election Returns for Vermont, 1867-1910 - Download All Files (0.176 MB)
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DS28:  Election Returns for Vermont, 1912-1914 - Download All Files (0.036 MB)
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DS29:  Election Returns for Vermont, 1916-1950 - Download All Files (0.171 MB)
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DS30:  Election Returns for Vermont, 1952-1958 - Download All Files (0.047 MB)
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DS31:  Election Returns for Vermont, 1960-1968 - Download All Files (0.057 MB)
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DS32:  Election Returns for Delaware, 1823-1876 - Download All Files (0.143 MB)
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DS33:  Election Returns for Delaware, 1878-1920 - Download All Files (0.122 MB)
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DS34:  Election Returns for Delaware, 1922-1926 - Download All Files (0.031 MB)
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DS35:  Election Returns for Delaware, 1928-1968 - Download All Files (0.14 MB)
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DS36:  Election Returns for New Jersey, 1824-1874 - Download All Files (0.197 MB)
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DS37:  Election Returns for New Jersey, 1876-1882 - Download All Files (0.039 MB)
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DS38:  Election Returns for New Jersey, 1883-1922 - Download All Files (0.197 MB)
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DS39:  Election Returns for New Jersey, 1924-1953 - Download All Files (0.196 MB)
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DS40:  Election Returns for New Jersey, 1954-1968 - Download All Files (0.086 MB)
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DS41:  Election Returns for New York, 1824-1854 - Download All Files (0.204 MB)
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DS42:  Election Returns for New York, 1856-1884 - Download All Files (0.229 MB)
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DS43:  Election Returns for New York, 1885-1906 - Download All Files (0.211 MB)
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DS44:  Election Returns for New York, 1908-1922 - Download All Files (0.203 MB)
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DS45:  Election Returns for New York, 1923-1933 - Download All Files (0.156 MB)
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DS46:  Election Returns for New York, 1934-1938 - Download All Files (0.177 MB)
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DS47:  Election Returns for New York, 1940-1952 - Download All Files (0.184 MB)
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DS48:  Election Returns for New York, 1954-1968 - Download All Files (0.141 MB)
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DS49:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1824-1876 - Download All Files (0.352 MB)
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DS50:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1878-1882 - Download All Files (0.061 MB)
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DS51:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1884-1899 - Download All Files (0.287 MB)
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DS52:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1900 - Download All Files (0.117 MB)
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DS53:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1901-1915 - Download All Files (0.339 MB)
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DS54:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1916-1928 - Download All Files (0.334 MB)
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DS55:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1930-1964 - Download All Files (0.332 MB)
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DS56:  Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1966-1968 - Download All Files (0.04 MB)
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DS57:  Election Returns for Illinois, 1824-1878 - Download All Files (0.495 MB)
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DS58:  Election Returns for Illinois, 1880-1910 - Download All Files (0.419 MB)
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DS59:  Election Returns for Illinois, 1912-1930 - Download All Files (0.502 MB)
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DS60:  Election Returns for Illinois, 1932-1968 - Download All Files (0.481 MB)
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DS61:  Election Returns for Indiana, 1824-1872 - Download All Files (0.369 MB)
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DS62:  Election Returns for Indiana, 1874-1926 - Download All Files (0.41 MB)
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DS63:  Election Returns for Indiana, 1928-1968 - Download All Files (0.404 MB)
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DS64:  Election Returns for Michigan, 1835-1874 - Download All Files (0.374 MB)
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DS65:  Election Returns for Michigan, 1876-1886 - Download All Files (0.101 MB)
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DS66:  Election Returns for Michigan, 1888-1920 - Download All Files (0.372 MB)
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DS67:  Election Returns for Michigan, 1922-1928 - Download All Files (0.103 MB)
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DS68:  Election Returns for Michigan, 1930-1960 - Download All Files (0.384 MB)
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DS69:  Election Returns for Michigan, 1962-1968 - Download All Files (0.081 MB)
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DS70:  Election Returns for Ohio, 1824-1873 - Download All Files (0.385 MB)
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DS71:  Election Returns for Ohio, 1874-1878 - Download All Files (0.053 MB)
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DS72:  Election Returns for Ohio, 1879-1916 - Download All Files (0.37 MB)
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DS73:  Election Returns for Ohio, 1918-1920 - Download All Files (0.039 MB)
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DS74:  Election Returns for Ohio, 1922-1948 - Download All Files (0.397 MB)
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DS75:  Election Returns for Ohio, 1950 - Download All Files (0.052 MB)
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DS76:  Election Returns for Ohio, 1952-1968 - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
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DS77:  Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1848-1884 - Download All Files (0.349 MB)
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DS78:  Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1886-1890 - Download All Files (0.082 MB)
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DS79:  Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1892-1926 - Download All Files (0.328 MB)
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DS80:  Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1928-1931 - Download All Files (0.059 MB)
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DS81:  Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1932-1968 - Download All Files (0.344 MB)
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DS82:  Election Returns for Iowa, 1846-1887 - Download All Files (0.434 MB)
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DS83:  Election Returns for Iowa, 1888-1923 - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
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DS84:  Election Returns for Iowa, 1924-1926 - Download All Files (0.074 MB)
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DS85:  Election Returns for Iowa, 1928-1958 - Download All Files (0.35 MB)
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DS86:  Election Returns for Iowa, 1960-1968 - Download All Files (0.137 MB)
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DS87:  Election Returns for Kansas, 1862-1898 - Download All Files (0.477 MB)
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DS88:  Election Returns for Kansas, 1900-1936 - Download All Files (0.481 MB)
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DS89:  Election Returns for Kansas, 1938-1943 - Download All Files (0.093 MB)
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DS90:  Election Returns for Kansas, 1944-1968 - Download All Files (0.363 MB)
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DS91:  Election Returns for Minnesota, 1857-1902 - Download All Files (0.426 MB)
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DS92:  Election Returns for Minnesota, 1904-1908 - Download All Files (0.06 MB)
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DS93:  Election Returns for Minnesota, 1910-1946 - Download All Files (0.399 MB)
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DS94:  Election Returns for Minnesota, 1948-1950 - Download All Files (0.053 MB)
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DS95:  Election Returns for Minnesota, 1952-1968 - Download All Files (0.219 MB)
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DS96:  Election Returns for Missouri, 1824-1872 - Download All Files (0.288 MB)
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DS97:  Election Returns for Missouri, 1874-1922 - Download All Files (0.463 MB)
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DS98:  Election Returns for Missouri, 1924-1968 - Download All Files (0.391 MB)
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DS99:  Election Returns for Nebraska, 1866-1908 - Download All Files (0.418 MB)
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DS100:  Election Returns for Nebraska, 1910-1912 - Download All Files (0.05 MB)
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DS101:  Election Returns for Nebraska, 1914-1948 - Download All Files (0.403 MB)
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DS102:  Election Returns for Nebraska, 1950-1952 - Download All Files (0.064 MB)
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DS103:  Election Returns for Nebraska, 1954-1968 - Download All Files (0.186 MB)
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DS104:  Election Returns for North Dakota, 1889-1926 - Download All Files (0.325 MB)
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DS105:  Election Returns for North Dakota, 1928-1962 - Download All Files (0.224 MB)
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DS106:  Election Returns for North Dakota, 1964-1968 - Download All Files (0.065 MB)
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DS107:  Election Returns for South Dakota, 1889-1932 - Download All Files (0.369 MB)
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DS108:  Election Returns for South Dakota, 1934-1968 - Download All Files (0.341 MB)
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DS109:  Election Returns for Virginia, 1824-1888 - Download All Files (0.631 MB)
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DS110:  Election Returns for Virginia, 1893-1929 - Download All Files (0.6 MB)
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DS111:  Election Returns for Virginia, 1930-1932 - Download All Files (0.126 MB)
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DS112:  Election Returns for Virginia, 1933-1968 - Download All Files (0.612 MB)
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DS113:  Election Returns for Alabama, 1824-1874 - Download All Files (0.325 MB)
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DS114:  Election Returns for Alabama, 1876-1918 - Download All Files (0.341 MB)
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DS115:  Election Returns for Alabama, 1920-1960 - Download All Files (0.321 MB)
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DS116:  Election Returns for Alabama, 1962-1968 - Download All Files (0.086 MB)
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DS117:  Election Returns for Arkansas, 1836-1890 - Download All Files (0.342 MB)
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DS118:  Election Returns for Arkansas, 1892-1902 - Download All Files (0.087 MB)
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DS119:  Election Returns for Arkansas, 1904-1940 - Download All Files (0.354 MB)
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DS120:  Election Returns for Arkansas, 1942 - Download All Files (0.035 MB)
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DS121:  Election Returns for Arkansas, 1944-1968 - Download All Files (0.237 MB)
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DS122:  Election Returns for Florida, 1845-1900 - Download All Files (0.318 MB)
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DS123:  Election Returns for Florida, 1902-1914 - Download All Files (0.09 MB)
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DS124:  Election Returns for Florida, 1916-1956 - Download All Files (0.304 MB)
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DS125:  Election Returns for Florida, 1958-1968 - Download All Files (0.064 MB)
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DS126:  Election Returns for Georgia, 1824-1860 - Download All Files (0.582 MB)
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DS127:  Election Returns for Georgia, 1868-1930 - Download All Files (0.494 MB)
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DS128:  Election Returns for Georgia, 1932-1946 - Download All Files (0.236 MB)
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DS129:  Election Returns for Georgia, 1948-1968 - Download All Files (0.321 MB)
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DS130:  Election Returns for Louisiana, 1824-1892 - Download All Files (0.329 MB)
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DS131:  Election Returns for Louisiana, 1894-1938 - Download All Files (0.312 MB)
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DS132:  Election Returns for Louisiana, 1940-1948 - Download All Files (0.095 MB)
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DS133:  Election Returns for Louisiana, 1950-1968 - Download All Files (0.146 MB)
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DS134:  Election Returns for Mississippi, 1824-1896 - Download All Files (0.381 MB)
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DS135:  Election Returns for Mississippi, 1898-1941 - Download All Files (0.338 MB)
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DS136:  Election Returns for Mississippi, 1942-1951 - Download All Files (0.119 MB)
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DS137:  Election Returns for Mississippi, 1952-1968 - Download All Files (0.171 MB)
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DS138:  Election Returns for North Carolina, 1824-1874 - Download All Files (0.428 MB)
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DS139:  Election Returns for North Carolina, 1876-1928 - Download All Files (0.404 MB)
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DS140:  Election Returns for North Carolina, 1930-1936 - Download All Files (0.08 MB)
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DS141:  Election Returns for North Carolina, 1938-1968 - Download All Files (0.275 MB)
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DS142:  Election Returns for South Carolina, 1824-1894 - Download All Files (0.247 MB)
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DS143:  Election Returns for South Carolina, 1896-1904 - Download All Files (0.066 MB)
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DS144:  Election Returns for South Carolina, 1906-1940 - Download All Files (0.246 MB)
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DS145:  Election Returns for South Carolina, 1942-1968 - Download All Files (0.19 MB)
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DS146:  Election Returns for Texas, 1846-1896 - Download All Files (0.817 MB)
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DS147:  Election Returns for Texas, 1898-1931 - Download All Files (0.844 MB)
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DS148:  Election Returns for Texas, 1932-1936 - Download All Files (0.195 MB)
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DS149:  Election Returns for Texas, 1937-1968 - Download All Files (0.947 MB)
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DS150:  Election Returns for Kentucky, 1824-1875 - Download All Files (0.463 MB)
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DS151:  Election Returns for Kentucky, 1876-1880 - Download All Files (0.084 MB)
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DS152:  Election Returns for Kentucky, 1882-1928 - Download All Files (0.487 MB)
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DS153:  Election Returns for Kentucky, 1929-1959 - Download All Files (0.449 MB)
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DS154:  Election Returns for Kentucky, 1960-1968 - Download All Files (0.136 MB)
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DS155:  Election Returns for Maryland, 1824-1880 - Download All Files (0.126 MB)
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DS156:  Election Returns for Maryland, 1882-1924 - Download All Files (0.158 MB)
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DS157:  Election Returns for Maryland, 1926-1968 - Download All Files (0.205 MB)
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DS158:  Election Returns for Oklahoma, 1907-1938 - Download All Files (0.335 MB)
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DS159:  Election Returns for Oklahoma, 1940-1948 - Download All Files (0.107 MB)
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DS160:  Election Returns for Oklahoma, 1950-1968 - Download All Files (0.17 MB)
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DS161:  Election Returns for Tennessee, 1825-1882 - Download All Files (0.353 MB)
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DS162:  Election Returns for Tennessee, 1884-1930 - Download All Files (0.351 MB)
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DS163:  Election Returns for Tennessee, 1932-1968 - Download All Files (0.416 MB)
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DS164:  Election Returns for West Virginia, 1863-1916 - Download All Files (0.295 MB)
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DS165:  Election Returns for West Virginia, 1918-1954 - Download All Files (0.246 MB)
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DS166:  Election Returns for West Virginia, 1956-1968 - Download All Files (0.087 MB)
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DS167:  Election Returns for Arizona, 1911-1944 - Download All Files (0.169 MB)
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DS168:  Election Returns for Arizona, 1946-1952 - Download All Files (0.046 MB)
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DS169:  Election Returns for Arizona, 1954-1968 - Download All Files (0.081 MB)
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DS170:  Election Returns for Colorado, 1876-1910 - Download All Files (0.305 MB)
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DS171:  Election Returns for Colorado, 1912-1914 - Download All Files (0.064 MB)
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DS172:  Election Returns for Colorado, 1916-1946 - Download All Files (0.311 MB)
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DS173:  Election Returns for Colorado, 1948-1968 - Download All Files (0.18 MB)
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DS174:  Election Returns for Idaho, 1890-1924 - Download All Files (0.253 MB)
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DS175:  Election Returns for Idaho, 1926-1934 - Download All Files (0.084 MB)
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DS176:  Election Returns for Idaho, 1936-1968 - Download All Files (0.242 MB)
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DS177:  Election Returns for Montana, 1889-1932 - Download All Files (0.288 MB)
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DS178:  Election Returns for Montana, 1934-1968 - Download All Files (0.277 MB)
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DS179:  Election Returns for Nevada, 1864-1912 - Download All Files (0.195 MB)
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DS180:  Election Returns for Nevada, 1914-1924 - Download All Files (0.068 MB)
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DS181:  Election Returns for Nevada, 1926-1960 - Download All Files (0.174 MB)
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DS182:  Election Returns for Nevada, 1962-1968 - Download All Files (0.044 MB)
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DS183:  Election Returns for New Mexico, 1911-1942 - Download All Files (0.229 MB)
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DS184:  Election Returns for New Mexico, 1944-1968 - Download All Files (0.209 MB)
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DS185:  Election Returns for Utah, 1896-1936 - Download All Files (0.199 MB)
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DS186:  Election Returns for Utah, 1938-1946 - Download All Files (0.065 MB)
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DS187:  Election Returns for Utah, 1948-1968 - Download All Files (0.13 MB)
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DS188:  Election Returns for Wyoming, 1890-1930 - Download All Files (0.186 MB)
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DS189:  Election Returns for Wyoming, 1932-1968 - Download All Files (0.176 MB)
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DS190:  Election Returns for California, 1849-1894 - Download All Files (0.318 MB)
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DS191:  Election Returns for California, 1896-1900 - Download All Files (0.048 MB)
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DS192:  Election Returns for California, 1902-1936 - Download All Files (0.304 MB)
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DS193:  Election Returns for California, 1938-1944 - Download All Files (0.085 MB)
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DS194:  Election Returns for California, 1946-1968 - Download All Files (0.215 MB)
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DS195:  Election Returns for Oregon, 1858-1904 - Download All Files (0.229 MB)
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DS196:  Election Returns for Oregon, 1906-1916 - Download All Files (0.079 MB)
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DS197:  Election Returns for Oregon, 1918-1952 - Download All Files (0.243 MB)
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DS198:  Election Returns for Oregon, 1954-1968 - Download All Files (0.127 MB)
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DS199:  Election Returns for Washington, 1889-1924 - Download All Files (0.257 MB)
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DS200:  Election Returns for Washington, 1926-1930 - Download All Files (0.042 MB)
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DS201:  Election Returns for Washington, 1932-1968 - Download All Files (0.261 MB)
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DS202:  Election Returns for Alaska, 1958-1968 - Download All Files (0.08 MB)
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DS203:  Election Returns for Hawaii, 1959-1968 - Download All Files (0.051 MB)
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DS204:  Political Party Codes
Documentation:
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Study Description

Citation

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. United States Historical Election Returns, 1824-1968 [Computer File]. ICPSR00001-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1999-04-26. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00001.v3

Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00001.v3

3
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/files/ICPSR/datacatalog.json
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/1/terms

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (GS881)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   candidates, congressional elections, counties, election returns, elections, gubernatorial elections, historical data, political attitudes, political behavior, political parties, presidential elections, senatorial elections, states (USA)

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1824--1968

Data Types:   aggregate data, survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The election data have been matched-merged and fixed-formatted within states. Because of the volume of data available for some states, it was necessary to store the election returns in more than one file per state.

County names have been standardized, including names for counties that have experienced name changes over time. In addition to the names, a county identification number was added to all county-level records. This number allows unique identification of all counties within states.

Data for elections to the office of United States representative have been collapsed to the whole-county level.

The election data files for each county contain the congressional district number of that county at the time of each election for the office of United States representative. When a county was divided into more than one congressional district, a code value indicating the number of congressional districts into which the county was divided was inserted in place of the congressional district number. It is thus possible to aggregate to the congressional district level all county-level election data (except in the case of split-district counties), and to perform the aggregations for the districts as they were constituted for any Congress.

Counties may have been assigned a congressional district number of zero if they were not in existence at the time of the election, did not report vote totals, or did not participate in that election.

For 1970 to 1990 election returns data, see GENERAL ELECTION DATA FOR THE UNITED STATES, 1970-1990 (ICPSR 0013).

Part 204, a listing of political party codes used in all data files, is an ASCII text file included as supplementary documentation. There is no actual codebook for this collection. Variable information is contained in the setup files. Some variable labels are cryptic. For example, the variable label V34="825 2 GOV 9001 VOTE" is interpreted as year of election/code for elected office/type of election/elected office/party code.

There are data for one race in Delaware from 1823 included in the collection, though this year is not reflected in the title.

Methodology

Data Source:

official election returns provided by state governments

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 1999-04-26 A machine-readable listing of political party codes has been added to the collection as Part 204.
  • 1997-09-26 SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been generated for all parts, and reformatted logical record length data files are now available for Parts 12, 33, 34, 35, 84, 96, 101, 104, 130, 156, and 194.

Related Publications (?)

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