Lijphart Elections Archive (LEA) (ICPSR 118)
Housed at the University of California, San Diego, the Lijphart Elections Archive (LEA) is a research collection of district-level election results for approximately 350 national legislative elections in dozens of countries, including Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Bosnia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The LEA Web site contains a catalog of holdings of both print and online data as well as access to data when it can be freely disseminated. The LEA attempts to collect election results down to the level of the individual election districts in which votes are converted into seats. The original scope of the Archive was to collect national election results in hard copy format for the lower or only house of the legislature and for any directly elected upper house in the 27 older democracies (i.e., the West European democracies, plus the United States, Canada, Costa Rica, India, Israel, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand) from 1945 on. The scope is now being expanded in several directions: more countries, a longer time span, sub-national as well as national elections, and, in particular, data in machine-readable format. The LEA Web site also contains Web links to many of the countries' constitutions and detailed descriptions of their electoral systems.
These data are not available from ICPSR. Users should consult the data owners directly (via Lijphart Elections Archive) for details on obtaining these resources.
Scope of Study
These data are not available from ICPSR. Users should consult the data owners directly for details on obtaining the data and documentation