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Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993-1994 [United States]: Revised Version (ICPSR 2748)

Principal Investigator(s):


This data collection consists of four integrated surveys of schools, administrators, and teachers in the United States. The 1993-1994 survey was expanded to include a student survey, in which information about students was taken from school administrative records, and a library survey, which collected data on school libraries and librarians (presented in Parts 5 and 6, the School Data). Parts 1 and 2, Public and Private Teacher Data, provide information on teaching assignment, teaching experience, certification, professional development, teaching workload, perceptions and attitudes about teaching, teacher salaries and incentives, retirement policies, job mobility, workplace conditions, and school disciplinary and academic problems. Parts 3 and 4, Public and Private Administrator Data, provide information about the training, experience, professional background, and demographic characteristics of school principals, and about the types of school problems principals view as serious. Parts 5 and 6, Public and Private School Data, present data on school characteristics, enrollment, student-staff ratios, programs and services offered, and length of the school day. Variables in Part 7, Public District Data, include information on student enrollment, number of full-time and part-time teachers, demographics of students and teachers, and information on lunch programs.

Series: Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) Series

Access Notes

  • One or more data files in this study are set up in a non-standard format, such as card image format. Users may need help converting these files before they can be used for analysis.

  • These data are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Because you are not logged in, we cannot verify that you will be able to download these data.


WARNING: This study is over 150MB in size and may take several minutes to download on a typical internet connection.

DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Teacher Survey Public School Data - Download All Files (98.6 MB)
DS2:  Teacher Survey Private School Data - Download All Files (21.2 MB)
DS3:  Administrator Survey Public School Data - Download All Files (22.3 MB)
DS4:  Administrator Survey Private School Data - Download All Files (9.6 MB)
DS5:  School Survey Public School Data - Download All Files (21.7 MB)
DS6:  School Survey Private School Data - Download All Files (9.3 MB)
DS7:  Public District Data - Download All Files (13.9 MB)

Study Description


U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. SCHOOLS AND STAFFING SURVEY, 1993-1994 [UNITED STATES]: REVISED VERSION.. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement [producer], 1998. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02748.v1

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   educational administrators, elementary education, private schools, public schools, secondary education, school enrollments, school libraries, school personnel, teacher education, teacher shortages, teaching (occupation)

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1993--1994

Date of Collection:  

  • 1993--1994

Universe:   Public and private schools in the United States in 1993-1994.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) This version of the collection is derived from the NCES's "Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and Teacher Followup Survey (TFS) CD-ROM: Public-Use Data for 3 Cycles of SASS and TFS." (2) The 1993-1994 SASS datasets are also available from SCHOOLS AND STAFFING SURVEY, 1993-1994: [UNITED STATES] [ECB Version on CD-ROM] (ICPSR 6753). (3) The codebook and technical manual are provided as Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided through the ICPSR Website on the Internet.


Sample:   Stratified sample.

Data Source:

self-enumerated questionnaires, and telephone interviews

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Restrictions: These data are released in accordance with the provisions of the General Education Provisions Act (GEPA). GEPA protects privacy by ensuring that respondents will never be individually identified. Under Public Law 100-297, the National Center for Education Statistics is responsible for protecting the privacy of individual respondents and is releasing these data to be used for statistical purposes only. Record matching or deductive disclosure by any user is prohibited. To ensure that the confidentiality provisions contained in PL 100-297 have been fully implemented, procedures for disclosure avoidance were used in preparing the data in this release. Every effort has been made to provide the maximum research information consistent with reasonable confidentiality protections. Therefore, certain variables have been deleted and others have been recoded into broader categories.


Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2006-01-18 File DOC2748.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
  • 2006-01-18 File CB2748.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
  • 2000-05-01 The SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been updated by the addition of value label statements.

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