United States Historical Election Returns Series

Investigator(s): Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR)

The United States Historical Election Returns series was developed by ICPSR and was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities. ICPSR's holdings of historical election data cover the years 1788-1990 and consist of several discrete datasets that contain county- and state-level returns for all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States senator, and United States representative. ICPSR distributes three major general election data collections: United States Historical Election Returns, 1824-1968 (ICPSR 0001), General Election Data for the United States, 1950-1990 (ICPSR 0013), and United States Historical Election Returns, 1788-1823 (ICPSR 0079). ICPSR 0001 contains state files that list county- level returns for over 90 percent of all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States senator, and United States representative for all parties and candidates from 1824 to 1968, as well as special elections and regularly-scheduled contests. ICPSR 0013 consists of national files containing county-level returns for elections to the offices of president, governor, United States senator, and United States representative from 1950 to 1990. Also included in this collection are returns for one additional statewide office, usually attorney general or secretary of state, for those states that elected state offices in the period 1970-1990. ICPSR 0079 is an extension of the general election collection (ICPSR 0001) and covers the preceding years, 1788-1823, going back to the occurrence of the first elections held under the United States Constitution. This collection contains data for elections to the offices of president, governor, and United States representative for the years 1788-1823. These data, recorded chiefly at the county level, consist of only about half of the possible returns for elections in this period and are less complete than the body of returns available for the years from 1824-present. The Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1990 (ICPSR 0002) data collection provides the names of candidates, candidates' political party name and ICPSR party ID code, and the number of votes received by each candidate for elections between 1788 and 1900. The data include county-level returns for over 90 percent of all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States representative (1824-1990), and United States senator (1912-1990). The dataset also includes returns for approximately two-thirds of all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States senator, and United States representative for the period 1788-1823. It contains returns for all parties and candidates (as well as scattering vote) contesting general elections and special elections anywhere in the nation. Information is also included on elections for which returns are available only at the constituency level and therefore not found in the county-level files of election returns in the other collections. Beginning with the 1968 elections, returns for one additional statewide office were included. Also included are 1990 data from the District of Columbia for United States senator and United States representative.

Most Recent Studies

Related Publications

Most Recent Publications

2015
Carpenter, Daniel,  Schneer, Benjamin . Party formation through petitions: The Whigs and the Bank War of 1832-1834. Studies in American Political Development. 29, (2), 213-234.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2014
Bailey, Martha J.,  Duquette, Nicolas J. How Johnson fought the War on Poverty: The economics and politics of funding at the office of economic opportunity. Journal of Economic History. 74, (2), 351-388.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2013
Charles, Kerwin Kofi,  Stephens, Melvin . Employment, wages, and voter turnout. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 5, (4), 111-143.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2013
Chicu, Mark,  Masten, Matthew A. A specification test for discrete choice models. Economics Letters. 121, (2), 336-339.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2013
DeWitt, Darin Dion . Party Formation in the United States. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2013
Kovandzic, Tomislav,  Schaffer, Mark E.,  Kleck, Gary . Estimating the causal effect of gun prevalence on homicide rates: A local average treatment effect approach. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 29, (4), 477-541.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2012
Cumley, Samantha Renee . The Political Economy of Imprisonment: An Analysis of Local Areas in the United States. Dissertation, University of Iowa.
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2012
Hawley, G.,  Sagarzazu, I. Where did the votes go? Reassessing American party realignments via vote transfers between major parties from 1860 to 2008. Electoral Studies. 31, (4), 726-739.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2011
Hogan, Richard . Resisting redemption: The Republican vote in Georgia in 1876. Social Science History. 35, (2), 133-166.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2008
Healy, Andrew J.,  Malhotra, Neil . Preferring a Pound of Cure to an Ounce of Prevention: Retrospective Voting and Failures in Electoral Accountability. University of California-Los Angeles, .
Full Text Options: PDF
Export Options: RIS/EndNote

Variables

Report a problem