National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program
This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth, 1994 (ICPSR 6517)
Alternate Title: MTF 1994 (12th Grade)
Principal Investigator(s): Bachman, Jerald G., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center; Johnston, Lloyd D., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center; O'Malley, Patrick M., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center
This is the twentieth annual survey in this series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. The students are randomly assigned one of six questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions but all containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are about 1,300 variables across the questionnaires. Full details on the research design and procedures, sampling methodology, content areas, and questionnaire design, as well as percentage distributions by respondent's sex, race, region, college plans, and drug use, appear in the annual ISR volumes MONITORING THE FUTURE: QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES FROM THE NATION'S HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS.
These data are freely available.
Bachman, Jerald G., Lloyd D. Johnston, and Patrick M. O'Malley. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth, 1994. ICPSR06517-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2007-06-29. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06517.v2
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06517.v2
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: alcohol, attitudes, demographic characteristics, drug use, family life, high school students, life plans, lifestyles, religious attitudes, social behavior, social change, tobacco use, values, youths
Geographic Coverage: United States
Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation: individual
Universe: High school seniors in the contiguous United States.
Data Types: survey data
Data Collection Notes:
(1) Percentage distributions provided in the codebook were generated using full weights, which are not available on the public use files. Therefore, these results cannot be replicated using the public use files. The differences between results produced using the full weights and those produced using the sampling weights available on the public use files are estimated to be below 1 percent. (2) To protect the anonymity of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been collapsed or recoded on the public use files. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use files.
MTF does not release detailed geography codes in its public use files because of the disclosure risk it would cause. The MTF sample is drawn to generate representative samples of the four Census Bureau regions of the country (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West), but it does not generate representative samples of smaller geographic areas such as states, counties, or cities. For additional information about data that is withheld from the public use files please contact MTF directly at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sample: Multistage area probability sample design involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 72 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty and 62 were selected with probability proportionate to size based on the size of the senior class. In schools with more than 400 seniors, a random sample of seniors or classes was drawn. In schools with less than 400 seniors, all seniors were asked to participate. Each school was asked to participate for two years, so that each year one-half of the sample is replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic).
Weight: Each of the seven parts contains a weight variable, V5. They were originally varied by school but were modified to protect respondent confidentiality. Users should use the weight variable for all analyses, the results of which will differ slightly from published data tables that used original data.
Mode of Data Collection: self-administered questionnaires
Response Rates: The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 80 percent since the inception of the study. The overall student response rate for 1994 was 84 percent.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Created online analysis version with question text.
- Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 1996-04-04
- 2007-06-29 Previously all variables for each part were missing value labels. Value labels have now been included. Also, the missing values designation for the question asking about religious preference (variable 168) was incorrect. This has been corrected.
- 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
- 1998-05-27 The codebooks are now available as PDF files. Also, the SAS data definition statements for Forms 1-6 and the SPSS data definition statements for Forms 3-6 are being reissued with corrected formats for the weight variable.
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