National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program
This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2006 (ICPSR 20022)
Alternate Title: MTF 2006 (12th Grade)
Principal Investigator(s): Johnston, Lloyd D., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center; Bachman, Jerald G., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center; O'Malley, Patrick M., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center; Schulenberg, John E., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center
This survey of 12th-grade students is part of a series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. Students are randomly assigned to complete one of six questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions, but all containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are about 1,400 variables across the questionnaires. Drugs covered by this survey include tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hashish, prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, LSD, hallucinogens, amphetamines (stimulants), Ritalin (methylphenidate), Quaaludes (methaqualone), barbiturates (tranquilizers), cocaine, crack cocaine, GHB (gamma hydroxy butyrate), ecstasy, methamphetamine, and heroin. Other items include attitudes toward religion, changing roles for women, educational aspirations, self-esteem, exposure to drug education, and violence and crime (both in and out of school).
These data are freely available.
Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, Patrick M. O'Malley, and John E. Schulenberg. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2006. ICPSR20022-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-09-12. doi:10.3886/ICPSR20022.v3
Persistent URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20022.v3
This survey was funded by:
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA-01411)
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: alcohol, attitudes, crime, demographic characteristics, drug education, drug use, families, gender roles, high school students, human behavior, lifestyles, prescription medications, religious attitudes, self esteem, social change, tobacco use, values, youths
Geographic Coverage: United States
Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation: individual
Universe: High school seniors in the contiguous United States.
Data Types: survey data
Data Collection Notes:
Conducted by the University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Survey Research Center.
Prior to 2005 the variable asking about race only had categories for Black and White. In 2005, a change was made to include a third category for Hispanic. This new format was implemented on all six forms. This change has continued in 2006. Each form for 2006 allows for Black, White, and Hispanic on the race question.
To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been collapsed or recoded in the public use files. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use files.
Variables omitted from the Western region questionnaires are noted in each codebook.
A user guide is provided with the study documentation. It contains a year-to-year cross-time question index for the MTF 12th-grade surveys, which is sorted by subject area, item reference number, and questionnaire form.
Sample: A multistage area probability sample design involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 72 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty, 10 were selected with a probability of .50, and the remainder were selected with a probability proportionate to the size of the senior class. In schools with more than 350 seniors, a random sample of seniors or classes was drawn. In schools with less than 350 seniors, all seniors were asked to participate. Each school was asked to participate for two years so that each year one-half of the sample would be replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic). The total sample was divided into six subsamples consisting of an average of 2,469 respondents. Each subsample was administered a different form of the questionnaire, although all respondents answered the "core" drug and demographic questions. The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 85 percent since the inception of the study.
Weight: Each of the seven parts contains a weight variable, V5. They were originally varied by school but were modified to protect respondent confidentiality. Users should use the weight variable for all analyses, the results of which will differ slightly from published data tables that used original data.
Mode of Data Collection: on-site questionnaire
Response Rates: The overall student response rate for 2006 was 83 percent.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Performed consistency checks.
- Standardized missing values.
- Created online analysis version with question text.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2007-10-29
- 2008-09-12 New data was supplied by the PI for Dataset 6, Form 5, for variables V5530, V5531, and V5532.
- 2007-12-13 Minor changes were made to the question text for Dataset 4, Form 3, on V3342, V3359, and V3376, and for Dataset 5 Form 4 on V4223.
- List all ~87 citations associated with this study
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Most Recent Publications
ICPSR has created the following instructional guides that utilize data from this study:
Additional materials can be found on our Resources for Instructors site.
Instructional guides that utilize this dataset are available:
Religion among Teens: A Data-Driven Learning Guide - Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
Religiosity is the term used to refer to the importance of religion in a person's life. It includes religious identity, behavior, attitudes, perceptions, and practices.
Research has shown that religiosity has a positive influence on adolescents' lives and is associated with healthier diets, exercise, sleep habits, and self-esteem, as well as lower rates of alcohol and drug use, early sexual behavior, delinquency, depression, and suicide.
Less is known about how religiosity develops in children and adolescents however, though research suggests that socio-cultural factors such as racial identity, gender, parental marital situation and geographical location of residence influence the extent of teenagers' religiosity, as do parents' attendance of religious services, parents' level of education, household income, and parental presence in the household.
The goal of this exercise is to examine the relationship between demographic and socio-cultural factors and religiosity among American high school students. Crosstabulations, comparison of means, and graphs will be used.
Characteristics of Teen Substance Users: A Data-Driven Learning Guide - Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
Deviant behavior is socially and culturally defined. Behaviors considered deviant in one society may be viewed as quite harmless in another. A behavior may even be defined as deviant when one type of person does it, but not when another type of person does. In the United States, the use of illegal drugs and alcohol is subject to similar socially constructed definitions of deviance. Alcohol use is considered deviant when the user is under the legal drinking age, driving an automobile, or pregnant, but quite acceptable under other conditions. Likewise, some types of illegal drugs are deemed more deviant than others, and the definition varies with the circumstances of use.
Adolescent substance use is of particular importance to researchers and policy makers because adolescence is characterized by a period of physical, emotional, and psychological development, all of which may influence, and be influenced by, substance use.
The goal of this exercise is to explore the characteristics of adolescents who use alcohol and marijuana. Crosstabulations and bar charts will be used.
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