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ANES 1994 Time Series Study (ICPSR 6507)

Alternate Title:  American National Election Study, 1994: Post-Election Survey [Enhanced with 1992 and 1993 Data]

Principal Investigator(s):


This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1994 National Election Study is a post-election interview in which approximately 42 percent of the cases are comprised of empaneled respondents first interviewed in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1992: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1990 AND 1991 DATA] (ICPSR 6067) and later in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1992-1993 PANEL STUDY ON SECURING ELECTORAL SUCCESS/1993 PILOT STUDY (ICPSR 6264). The other 58 percent of the cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. The panel component of the study is designed to exploit the special features of the 1992-1994 elections: a minority president struggling to forge a majority coalition in the face of a strong third-party challenge, and the replacement in 1992 of fully one-quarter of the House of Representatives. Coming at the end of this period, the 1994 National Election Study provides insights into how electoral coalitions form and decay, and how members of the House who were newly-elected in 1992 secured -- or did not secure -- their districts. The design themes became especially salient in the aftermath of the November 8 election, when control of the Congress shifted to the Republican Party for the first time since 1952. Survey questions included the now-standard National Election Studies battery of congressional evaluations supplemented by questions on term limits, the respondent's representative's vote on President Bill Clinton's crime bill, and whether the respondent felt that his or her representative cared more about prestige and influence for himself/herself than about solving the problems of the congressional district. The content for the 1994 Election Study reflects its dual purpose, both as the traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as the third wave of a panel study. In addition to the standard demographic items, respondents were asked their positions on the following substantive themes: interest in the campaign, media exposure, presidential performance evaluation, measures of partisanship (party likes/dislikes and party identification), which party would better handle certain public problems, summary evaluations (feeling thermometers) on major political figures and social groups, and recent voting behavior. Respondents were also asked their views on issues such as defense spending, assistance to Blacks, the trade-off between spending and services, health insurance, the role of women, recent proposals to reform welfare, preferences on federal budget allocations, and evaluations of retrospective and prospective national and personal economic trends. They were also queried on the extent of their participation in the campaign and their values regarding egalitarianism, attitudes toward race, school prayer, and abortion.

Series: American National Election Study (ANES) Series

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Study Description


Rosenstone, Steven J., Donald R. Kinder, Warren E. Miller, and University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies. ANES 1994 Time Series Study. ICPSR06507-v4. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-11-10. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06507.v4

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This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SES-8808361 and SBR-9317631)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   abortion, candidates, Clinton Administration (1993-2001), congressional elections, crime, domestic policy, economic conditions, government performance, government spending, media coverage, national elections, political affiliation, political attitudes, political campaigns, political efficacy, political elites, political participation, political partisanship, presidential elections, presidential performance, public approval, public opinion, racial attitudes, school prayer, trust in government, voter history, voting behavior, welfare services

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1990--1994

Universe:   All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 3, 1992 (for those interviewed in 1992 and 1993), or on or before November 8, 1994 (for those interviewed in 1994), residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

A total of 1,795 citizens were interviewed in the nine weeks after the November 8, 1994, election. Forty percent of these interviews were completed during the first week, and 68 percent were completed by the end of the third week. Of the total 1,795 respondents, 759 were initially interviewed in the 1992 Pre-Post Election Study, and 635 of these 759 panel respondents had also been interviewed (by telephone) in the 1993 Pilot Study. Variables from 1992 and 1993 have been padded with missing data values for all 1994 cross-section respondents.


Sample:   National multistage area probability sample.

Mode of Data Collection:   face-to-face interview, telephone interview


Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.
  • 1999-09-15 The data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats, in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) year prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables have also been added.

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