National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program

This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Inmate Pre-Release Assessment (IPASS), 2001 [United States] (ICPSR 29201)

Principal Investigator(s):


The UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs (ISAP), in conjunction with Texas Christian University, the University of Kentucky, and Brown University, proposes to develop and test the Inmate Pre-Release Assessment (IPASS) as a method of (1) prioritizing aftercare treatment need among graduates of prison-based substance abuse treatment programs, and (2) specifying an appropriate level of care (residential, outpatient, or self-help groups). The IPASS was developed specifically as a post-release risk measure for prison-based substance abuse treatment graduates by taking into account the inmates' historical drug use and criminal activity, as well as his or her performance during the prison-based treatment program. IPASS forms were administered to inmates housed in 14 institutions in four states: California, Maryland, New Mexico, and Oregon. While the IPASS has demonstrated sound psychometric properties as a continuous measure of post-release risk and general treatment need for substance-abusing parolees (Farabee & Knight, 2001), its ability to predict relapse and recidivism risk has not been tested using a prospective design. Part 1 of this study is the main part which is based on the IPASS Intake Form (479) and is designed to provide a quick assessment of criminal risk based on pre-incarceration risk factors. The first part of this form focuses heavily on criminal history, with questions about arrest and incarceration history, revocation history, and age of first criminal activity. It also asks about education level achieved, marital status and happiness, and friends drug use. The next part on the IPASS Intake Form (479) is designed to provide a quick screen for pre-incarceration drug use severity. It is based on the first ten items of the TCU Drug Screen II with the items corresponding to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) classification criteria for Drug Dependence. And the last part of the IPASS Intake form begins by asking inmates if they want to enter a drug treatment program after leaving prison; and if so, which treatment modality is preferred. Inmates were asked to indicate how much they disagree or agree with nine items pertaining to their interactions with the treatment staff. These items include the treatment staff being easy to talk to, easy to understand, listening to you, organized and prepared, treating you with respect, helping you solve problems, supportive of your progress, helping you with your recovery, and happy with your progress. Part 2 of the study mainly focused on arrest information and the number of criminal activities. Part 3 of the study is based on the IPASS Continuing Care Referral Form (484) and begins by asking inmates if they want to enter a drug treatment program after leaving prison; and if so, which treatment modality is preferred. Part 4 of the study is based on the IPASS Continuing Care Admit/Discharge Form (481A) and provides information regarding the Admission and Discharge of the inmates. And finally, Part 5 of the study is completed by the inmates' primary counselor and begins by recording the number of "major" disciplinary acts an inmate committed prior to and during their time at the treatment program.

Series: Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) Series

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  IPASS Inmate Intake Data - Download All Files (2.2 MB)
DS2:  IPASS Arrest Data - Download All Files (1.1 MB)
DS3:  IPASS Referral Data - Download All Files (1.5 MB)
DS4:  IPASS Continuing Care Data - Download All Files (1.5 MB)
DS5:  IPASS Counselor Assessment Data - Download All Files (1.5 MB)

Study Description


Farabee, David. Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Inmate Pre-Release Assessment (IPASS), 2001 [United States]. ICPSR29201-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-01-06.

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   criminal histories, drug abuse, drug dependence, drug treatment, drug use, inmate attitudes, inmate programs, inmates, treatment programs

Smallest Geographic Unit:   institution

Geographic Coverage:   California, Maryland, New Mexico, Oregon, United States

Time Period:  

  • 2001-05--2001-07

Date of Collection:  

  • 2001-05--2001-07

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   Inmates, ages 19 to 68, and their counselors in fourteen institutions in four states: California, Maryland, New Mexico, and Oregon.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) overseeing research at each of the 11 research centers comprising the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) CJ-DATS network.

Collaborating Research Centers include: Brown University/Lifespan Hospitals Texas Christian University, and University of Kentucky.


Study Design:   The IPASS will be administered to inmates within 90 days of their release, along with a trailer form on which the pre-release counselors will indicate how important it is for that inmate to receive aftercare and what level of care (i.e., residential, outpatient, or self-help) is indicated. Although the transitional counselor will oversee the administration of the IPASS, aftercare placements will be based on his or her existing practices. Using a "passive matching" procedure comparing IPASS-concordant and IPASS-discordant referrals, parolees will be compared with regard to aftercare show up rates and retention (based on clinic records), and 12-month re-arrest (based on official records).

Sample:   Data were collected between May and July 2001, from 467 inmates who volunteered to participate in the study. They were from 4 different states (275 from California, 93 from Oregon, 58 from New Mexico, and 41 from Maryland). Although the sample was split fairly equally between males (n=55 percent) and females (n=45 percent), it was predominately Caucasian (44 percent) or African American (27 percent), with a median age of 36 years (ranging from 19 to 68). Half of the sample had been in treatment for nearly 8 months (223 days), and had been in prison for a little more than 13 months (415 days). Half of the sample also was within 2 months (55 days) of their expected parole date.

Mode of Data Collection:   mail questionnaire, mixed mode, paper and pencil interview (PAPI)

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:  

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