This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Youth Self Report, Wave 2, 1997-2000 (ICPSR 13667)
Principal Investigator(s): Earls, Felton J., Harvard Medical School; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Scientific Director. Columbia University. Teacher's College. Center for the Study of Children and Families; Raudenbush, Stephen W., Scientific Director. University of Michigan. School of Education and Survey Research Center; Sampson, Robert J., Scientific Director. Harvard University. Department of Sociology
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. One of the measures that composed the Longitudinal Cohort Study was the Youth Self Report (YSR). The YSR protocol, a self-administered survey, was first developed by Thomas M. Achenbach and was derived from another widely-used standardized measure in child psychology, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The YSR was designed to assess the emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents (aged 11 to 18) in a standardized format. The PHDCN version of the YSR was administered to subjects belonging to Cohorts 9, 12, and 15 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study. It assessed internalizing (i.e., anxiety, depression, and overcontrolled) and externalizing (i.e., aggressive, hyperactivity, noncompliant, and undercontrolled) behaviors. Six sub-scale symptoms (Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxiety and Depression, Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behaviors) were also measured. The Wave 2 version of the YSR contains a reduced set of items compared to the Wave 1 version of the YSR (PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): YOUTH SELF REPORT, WAVE 1, 1994-1997 [ICPSR 13607]).
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Earls, Felton J., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Robert J. Sampson. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Youth Self Report, Wave 2, 1997-2000. ICPSR13667-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-04-05. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13667.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13667.v1
This study was funded by:
- John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
- Harris Foundation
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005)
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
- United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
- Turner Foundation
Scope of Study
(1) The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection. (2) At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences.
Youth Self Report (YSR)
The data in this collection are from Wave 2 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study, administered between 1997 and 2000. The data files contain information from the Youth Self Report protocol. The YSR has been identified as an extremely reliable and valid measure for assessing adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems. The purpose of the PHDCN YSR was to obtain from the subject a self-perceived assessment on anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsion, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and other antisocial behaviors, including measures of aggression, defiance and involvement in delinquent behavior. The overall goal of the YSR was to classify respondents' answers as either internalizing or externalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were defined as co-occurring problems that mainly involved inner distress, such as undue anxiety, depression, and inhibition, whereas externalizing behaviors were defined as co-occurring problems that mainly involved aggressive behaviors as well as conflicts with others and with social mores.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts, and geographic boundaries, and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed in the Wave 1 data collection and 5,338 were interviewed in the Wave 2 data collection.
Data collection for Wave 2 began in 1997 and ended in 2000. It included a letter sent to study participants notifying them that they would be contacted to schedule an interview. This letter explained the study, reimbursements, and offered a monthly drawing prize of $1,000 for those participants who kept their first scheduled appointment. A toll free number was also included in the letter, so participants could call and schedule their own interviews or ask questions.
For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. An abbreviated telephone interview was conducted for the primary caregivers in Cohorts 0-15 and Cohort 18 study participants in Wave 2 who lived outside the nine-county metropolitan area to which research assistants were able to travel for interviews. A total of 221 telephone interviews were conducted during Wave 2, representing 3.55 percent of the sample.
Proxy interviews were conducted with study participants who were emancipated minors (under 18 but married or living independently). The study participants answered questions from the primary caregiver's interview on the primary caregiver's behalf. In Wave 2, four primary caregivers and two study participants were interviewed in jail. Study participants in foster care could not be interviewed. The Department of Children and Family Services did not allow interviews of the foster parent or the child. Permission was granted for a brief period in Wave 1, therefore there are some children in the sample who could not be followed up in Waves 2 and 3. Some children were not in foster care in Wave 1 but were placed in foster care by Wave 2 or 3. They were also not followed up. Lastly, some participants were interviewed in Wave 3 but not in Wave 2, as they were in foster care during Wave 2.
Some participants in Wave 1 spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. In Wave 2, an abbreviated version of the primary caregiver's protocol was administered, and the research assistant arranged for someone in the household to translate on the spot. In Wave 2, the complete protocol was translated into Spanish, and a subset of the primary caregiver's interview was translated into Polish.
Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes, were also included.
Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use.
Youth Self Report (YSR)
Administered between 1997 and 2000, the Youth Self Report (YSR) was completed by the subjects belonging to Cohorts 9, 12, and 15 of the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study. Respondents were asked to rate a list of items that applied to their behavior, occurring within the past six months, on a three-point Likert-type response scale: 0 = not true, 1 = somewhat true or sometimes true, and 2 = very true or often true. Questionnaire items included "I argue a lot," "I feel lonely," "I destroy things belonging to others," "I feel no one loves me," "I am shy," "I threaten to hurt people," and "I worry a lot." The YSR was comprised of six sub-scales: Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxiety and Depression, Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behaviors. Internalizing behaviors such as anxiety, depression and other emotional problems not overtly evident were measured by combining responses comprising the Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, and Anxious/Depressed sub-scales. Externalizing behaviors such as aggression, hyperactivity, and other overt behavioral problems were measured by combining responses comprising the Aggressive Behavior and Delinquent Behaviors sub-scales.
Description of Variables: In addition to the variables containing the responses to the YSR, there are several scale variables present in the files, including Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxiety and Depression, Attention Problems, Delinquent, Aggressive, Internalizing, and Externalizing Behavior. There is also a Total Problems scale variable that was generated from all summed questionnaire items except for those inquiring about allergies or asthma. It measures overall emotional and behavioral problems.
The overall response rate for Wave 2 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 85.94 percent or 5,338 participants. The response rates for subjects by cohort were:
- 0 percent for Cohort 0
- 87.5 percent for Cohort 3
- 88.0 percent for Cohort 6
- 85.6 percent for Cohort 9
- 86.2 percent for Cohort 12
- 82.7 percent for Cohort 15
- 80.2 percent for Cohort 18
The response rates for primary caregivers by cohort were:
- 83.3 percent for Cohort 0
- 88.3 percent for Cohort 3
- 88.3 percent for Cohort 6
- 86.6 percent for Cohort 9
- 87.2 percent for Cohort 12
- 85.9 percent for Cohort 15
- 0 percent for Cohort 18
Presence of Common Scales: Scale variables for the YSR include: Withdrawn, Anxious/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2006-04-05
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