This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment, Wave 1, 1994-1997 (ICPSR 13594)
Principal Investigator(s): Earls, Felton J., Harvard Medical School; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Scientific Director. Columbia University. Teacher's College. Center for the Study of Children and Families; Raudenbush, Stephen W., Scientific Director. University of Michigan. School of Education and Survey Research Center; Sampson, Robert J., Scientific Director. Harvard University. Department of Sociology
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. One of the measures composing the Longitudinal Cohort Study was the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory. The HOME inventory sought to observe the developmental environment in which children belonging to the Longitudinal Cohort Study sample were raised. The HOME inventory was designed to capture the absence or presence of certain cognitive stimuli, including varied learning experiences and diverse educational materials. The HOME inventory also measured the extent and nature of the interactions that occurred between the subject and his or her primary caregiver, the subject and the subject's father (if the father was not the primary caregiver), and the subject and other family members. The PHDCN version of the HOME inventory also assessed the physical conditions in and around the respondent's home, taking careful note of the layout of the streets and buildings comprising the neighborhood.
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Earls, Felton J., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Robert J. Sampson. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment, Wave 1, 1994-1997. ICPSR13594-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005-07-18. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13594.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13594.v1
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
- Harris Foundation
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005)
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
- Turner Foundation
- John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: adolescents, caregivers, child care, child development, child health, childhood, cognition, family life, health, infants, neighborhoods, parent child relationship, parental influence, social behavior, social environment, social influences
The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection.
At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences.
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME)
The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory was one of the principal instruments used to obtain the data summarizing the different aspects that formed the developmental environment of the infants, children, adolescents, and young adults in all seven age cohorts. The HOME inventory was composed of questions administered to the subject's primary caregiver and subjects belonging to Cohort 18. The purpose of the HOME inventory was to evaluate the various aspects of the subject's developmental environment that could affect future positive or negative social behaviors. To this end, the HOME inventory summarized the primary caregiver's responsivity to and acceptance of the subject, the interaction between the subject and other members of the subject's immediate and extended family, particularly the subject's father, the positive and negative reinforcement received by the subject from the primary caregiver, the subject's access to various learning materials and toys either at home or at school, the rules and limitations placed on the subject, verbal communication between the subject and the primary caregiver, and the variety of experiences encountered by the subject. However, the HOME inventory as adapted by the PHDCN study was not limited to observing the quality of the intellectual and psychological aspects of the subject's developmental environment. In addition, the PHDCN version of the HOME inventory carefully assessed the various aspects of the physical environment in which the subjects lived, including the living conditions present inside the home as well as the state of the surrounding neighborhood.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts and geographic boundaries, and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed.
For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. Interviews were conducted in Spanish, English, and Polish. In Wave 1 the complete protocol was translated into Spanish and Polish. An interpreter was hired for participants who spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes were also included.
Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use.
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME)
The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) protocol was administered to the primary caregivers (PC) of the subjects belonging to each of the age cohorts (0 to 18) composing Wave 1. For Cohort 18, the HOME interview was administered to both PCs and subjects. A total of 6,172 respondents completed the HOME inventory: 1,250 from Cohort 0, 995 from Cohort 3, 974 from Cohort 6, 821 from Cohort 9, 816 from Cohort 12, 686 from Cohort 15, and 630 from Cohort 18. The semi-structured interview was conducted at the respondent's home. The HOME inventory was originally created to measure the quality and quantity of stimulation and support available to a child in the home environment. However, the PHDCN adaptation of the widely used HOME inventory sought to obtain data that would also summarize the physical conditions present both inside and outside of the subject's residence. To capture the developmental environment composed of the subject's home and neighborhood, additional questions were taken from the Systematic Social Observation checklist (PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): SYSTEMATIC SOCIAL OBSERVATION CHECKLIST, WAVE 1, 1995 [ICPSR 13578]) and included as part of the PHDCN version of the HOME inventory.
The questions regarding the physical environment found in the subject's house and neighborhood were completed by the interviewer. These questions provided multiple responses and solicited information such as the level of noise encountered in the home, the amount of space within the house, the condition of the houses and other buildings on the block, and the volume of traffic on the streets. For Cohorts 0 and 18, the HOME inventory only evaluated the physical state of the subject's home and neighborhood. The interview for Cohorts 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 contained additional, age-appropriate questions designed to observe the developmental environment of the subject. These questions were administered to the subject's primary caregiver and offered only two responses--yes or no. These questions sought to identify whether or not certain educational opportunities such as trips to museums, live performances and access to materials such as books, CD's, and board games were available to the subject at home. The HOME inventory also sought to determine whether these opportunities and materials were made available to the children at school if they were not available at home. The HOME inventory further sought to obtain information regarding other aspects of the subject's cognitive stimulation, the responsivity of the primary caregiver toward the subject, positive and negative interactions between the primary caregiver and the subject, as well as the presence or absence of a model of positive social behavior for the subject.
Description of Variables: The HOME inventory maintains a core set of variables across the various cohort files. These variables primarily captured information regarding the physical, interior home environment and details about the condition and layout of the neighborhood. Additional age appropriate questions intended to summarize the emotional and verbal responsiveness of the primary caregiver toward the subject, avoidance of restriction and punishment, organization of environment, provision of appropriate play and learning materials, maternal involvement with child, and opportunities for variety in daily stimulation were added to the base interview as the respondents got progressively older. Each of the HOME files also contains a number of administrative variables containing such information as identification numbers for subjects and interviewers, cohort, wave, and time and date of interviews.
The overall response rate for Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 75 percent or 6,228 participants. The response rates by cohort were:
- 76.2 percent (1,269) for Cohort 0
- 76.6 percent (1,003) for Cohort 3
- 75.0 percent (980) for Cohort 6
- 75.9 percent (828) for Cohort 9
- 74.3 percent (820) for Cohort 12
- 71.6 percent (696) for Cohort 15
- 70.3 percent (632) for Cohort 18
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Created online analysis version with question text.
- Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2005-07-18
- 2006-03-01 Data were moved to restricted access. The metadata record was changed accordingly.
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