National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Family Environment Scale, Wave 1, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 13590)

Alternate Title:  PHDCN FES, 1994-1995

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. One of these measures was the Family Environment Scale (FES). The FES was designed to assess the interpersonal relationships and the overall social environment within the family. The FES captures the perception of the family's functioning from one of its own members. In the case of the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study, the respondents who completed the FES were the primary caregivers for cohorts 0-15 and the subjects composing cohort 18. The FES specifically sought to quantify three dimensions of the family environment: interpersonal relationships, directions of personal growth, and basic organization and structure. In addition to acting as a self-report measuring the family environment, the FES was also used as an instrument to observe the effect of the family environment on the individual subjects. Three scales (Conflict, Control, and Moral-Religious Emphasis) from the Family Environment Scale were used in this questionnaire to further evaluate the functioning of the family.

Series: Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Series

Access Notes

  • One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions ; consult the restrictions note to learn more. You can apply online for access to the data. A login is required to apply for access. (How to apply.)

    Access to these data is restricted. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete a Restricted Data Use Agreement, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.

Dataset(s)

DS0:  Study-Level Files
Documentation:
DS1:  Cohort 0
Documentation:
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No downloadable data files available.
DS2:  Cohort 3
Documentation:
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No downloadable data files available.
DS3:  Cohort 6
Documentation:
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No downloadable data files available.
DS4:  Cohort 9
Documentation:
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No downloadable data files available.
DS5:  Cohort 12
Documentation:
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No downloadable data files available.
DS6:  Cohort 15
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No downloadable data files available.
DS7:  Cohort 18
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No downloadable data files available.

Study Description

Citation

Earls, Felton J., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Robert J. Sampson. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Family Environment Scale, Wave 1, 1994-1995 . ICPSR13590-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005-07-18. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13590.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
  • Harris Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005)
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
  • United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
  • Turner Foundation

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   adolescents, caregivers, child development, childhood, conflict, conflict resolution, control, families, family conflict, family life, family relationships, moral judgment, neighborhoods, religious attitudes, religious beliefs, social behavior

Geographic Coverage:   Chicago, Illinois, United States

Time Period:  

  • 1994--1997

Date of Collection:  

  • 1994--1997

Unit of Observation:   Individuals

Universe:   Children, adolescents, young adults, and their primary caregivers, living in the city of Chicago in 1994.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection. (2) At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.

Methodology

Study Purpose:  

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources.

Longitudinal Cohort Study

One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences.

Family Environment Scale (FES)

The data in this collection are from Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was administered between 1994 and 1995. The data files contain information from the Family Environment Scale (FES) protocol. The FES measure was designed to assess the social and environmental characteristics of families. Of particular interest were the aspects of family functioning such as interpersonal relationships, directions of personal growth, and basic organization and structure. Several important studies, such as Harris (1982), Garfinkle (1981), and Gottfried & Gottfried (1984) have shown positive correlations between various FES sub scales (cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement orientation, intellectual-cultural orientation, active-reactional orientation, moral-religious emphasis, organization, and control) and cognitive development. In particular, the FES, as adapted by the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study, intended to evaluate the familial tendencies with respect to the dimensions of family functioning with Control, Conflict, and Moral-Religiosity scales. The FES was designed to gain the perspective of family's social environment from within the family itself. For that reason, the FES was completed by both primary caregivers (Cohorts 0-15) and subjects (Cohort 18).

Study Design:  

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts and geographic boundaries, and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people.

Longitudinal Cohort Study

For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed.

For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. Interviews were conducted in Spanish, English, and Polish. In Wave 1 the complete protocol was translated into Spanish and Polish. An interpreter was hired for participants who spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes were also included.

Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use.

Family Environment Scale (FES)

The Family Environment Scale (FES) was included as part of the PHDCN Longitudinal Study to assess the social-environmental attributes of the families belonging to the various Wave 1 cohorts. The original FES, developed by Rudolf H. Moos, consisted of 10 sub-scales, including cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement orientation, intellectual- cultural orientation, active-reactional orientation, moral-religious emphasis, organization, and control, intended to evaluate the core facets of family life as perceived by the family members, themselves. Of these, the PHDCN version of the FES utilized the Control, Conflict, and Moral-Religiosity scales. While the original FES measure consisted of 90 true-false items, the PHDCN version of the FES is composed of just 27 true-false questions, plus one multiple response question and was administered to the primary caregivers (PCs) for the subjects belonging to cohorts 0 through 15. However, for Cohort 18 the subjects themselves completed the FES. Higher scores on a particular sub-scale indicated that family climate was more strongly characterized by that particular attribute.

Sample:   Stratified probability sample.

Mode of Data Collection:   face-to-face interview, telephone interview

Description of Variables:   The Family Environment Scale (FES) was designed to evaluate the social and environmental characteristics of the families of the subjects participating in the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study. The response format for the majority of variables was true or false. As such, the respondent was asked to indicate the validity of various statements in describing the nature of his or her family. For example, one question asked, "If there's a disagreement in our family, we try hard to smooth things over and keep the peace." The final question, variable FE28, allowed for multiple responses, asking the respondent which member of the family did they have in mind when answering the preceding questions. In addition to the variables containing the responses to the FES questionnaire, there were three scale variables that were constructed to produce an aggregated score for each respondent's family in the areas of control, conflict, and moral-religiosity. The data also included standardized versions for each of the previously mentioned scales. Also included were administrative variables to specify such information as cohort, time and date that the measure was conducted, and identification variables for both the respondent and the interviewer.

Response Rates:  

The overall response rate for Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 75 percent or 6,228 participants. The response rates by cohort were:

  1. 76.2 percent (1,269) for Cohort 0
  2. 76.6 percent (1,003) for Cohort 3
  3. 75.0 percent (980) for Cohort 6
  4. 75.9 percent (828) for Cohort 9
  5. 74.3 percent (820) for Cohort 12
  6. 71.6 percent (696) for Cohort 15
  7. 70.3 percent (632) for Cohort 18

Presence of Common Scales:   Scale variables include: Control, Conflict, and Moral Religiosity.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2006-03-01 Data were moved to restricted access. The metadata record was changed accordingly.

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