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Central and Eastern Euro-barometer 2: Current Affairs and the Media, September-October 1991 (ICPSR 6105)

Principal Investigator(s): Reif, Karlheinz, Commission of the European Communities; Cunningham, George, Commission of the European Communities


The second round of Central and Eastern Euro-Barometer Surveys was carried out in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and European Russia. It assessed Central and Eastern Europeans' awareness of and attitudes toward the European Community (EC) and its programs and activities. In addition, the survey asked respondents to give opinions on a number of issues of importance to all European nations. It also explored citizens' reactions to the political and economic reforms occurring in their own countries. Respondents were asked whether things in general were going in the right or wrong direction in their country, and whether economic reforms and privatization were occurring too fast or too slowly. Other questions probed for how well individuals felt their country's economy and their own finances had fared over the past year, and how well they would fare over the coming year. Opinions were sought on whether the establishment of a free market economy was right or wrong. The survey asked respondents how satisfied they were with the development of democracy in their country, and whether they intended to vote in the next general election. It also elicited opinions on the degree of respect for human rights in the respondent's country. Other questions asked how frequently respondents thought of themselves as European, and whether they had considered going to work in a country in Western Europe. A series of items focused on general usage of television, radio, and newspapers, and on trust in various forms of information media, including broadcasts from the West. Several country-specific questions were asked about sources of information on the European Community. Respondents were also asked to indicate how aware they were of, and how interested in, the European Community and its activities and institutions, and to rate how positively they regarded the EC and the prospect of their country's membership in it. Participants were also asked about how the economy, government, and private citizens might be advantaged or disadvantaged by the country's increasing ties with the EC. Opinions were sought on the fairness of the Community's and other countries' trade and assistance policies, especially the PHARE assistance program for Central and Eastern Europe, and EC aid requested by the former Soviet Union. Respondents were asked to rate the usefulness of EC initiatives in Yugoslavia and its republics if they were aware of them. Respondents' views were also obtained on the break-up of the Soviet republics. Demographic data collected on each participant included age, education, occupation, religion, ethnic background, mother-tongue, citizenship, union membership, left/right political placement, sex, and income. A brief section, not asked in Albania, obtained data on lifestyle characteristics, such as household appliances and machines, recreation and hobby activities, and optimistic or pessimistic attitudes.

Series: Central and Eastern Eurobarometer Survey Series

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Study Description


Reif, Karlheinz, and George Cunningham. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EURO-BAROMETER 2: CURRENT AFFAIRS AND THE MEDIA, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1991. Conducted by Gallup International (Europe), London. ICPSR06105-v2. Mannheim, Germany: Zentrum fur Europaische Umfrageanalysen und Studien/Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung [producers], 2003. Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2005-04-29. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06105.v2

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06105.v2

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    democracy, economic conditions, economic integration, economic reform, European Economic Community, European Union, human rights, international alliances, market economy, news media, political attitudes, political awareness, political change, political reform, public opinion, privatization, quality of life, social attitudes, social change, sources of information, trade policy, voter expectations

Geographic Coverage:    Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Europe, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1991

Date of Collection:   

  • 1991-09--1991-10

Universe:    Persons aged 15 and over residing in 10 nations in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and European Russia.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) Yugoslavia was not included in this survey due to the outbreak of hostilities prior to the commencement of fieldwork. (2) Data processing for this collection was performed at the Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung in Cologne, Germany.


Sample:    Multistage national probability samples, except in Hungary, where a national stratified quota sampling technique was employed.

Mode of Data Collection:    face-to-face interview

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1995-01-20

Version History:

  • 2005-04-29 This data collection has been reformatted and updated in conformance with current Eurobarometer processing standards. Many variable names, variable labels, and value labels have been revised to current naming conventions. Some combined variables have been broken out into several variables. Revised SAS and SPSS setup files and an updated documentation file are now available as well.

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