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Central and Eastern Euro-barometer 1: Public Opinion in Central and Eastern Europe, 1990 (ICPSR 6104)
Principal Investigator(s): Reif, Karlheinz, Commission of the European Communities; Cunningham, George, Commission of the European Communities
This first round of Central and Eastern Euro-Barometer Surveys was undertaken during the reunification of Germany and after the announcement of independence by several Soviet states and the realignment of governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria. In an atmosphere of changed relations among the nations of Eastern and Western Europe, this survey attempted to assess Central and Eastern Europeans' awareness of and attitudes toward the European Community, its programs and activities, and issues facing all European nations. It also explored citizens' reactions to the political and economic reforms occurring in their own countries. Surveys were carried out in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, and the German Democratic Republic, as well as in the former Soviet Union. The Soviet Union samples were obtained from the Greater Moscow area and from the republics of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Russia west of the Ural Mountains. In all surveys comprising Euro-Barometer 1, demographic data usually included the respondent's age, sex, level of education, family size, income, occupation, marital status, and religious denomination. In some places, mother tongue and self-described left-right political placement were also ascertained. In most countries, respondents were asked how they felt things were going in their country in general, how well their country's economy and their own finances had fared over the past year, whether they thought the establishment of a free market economy was right or wrong, and whether economic reforms and privatization were occurring too rapidly or too slowly. Satisfaction with the development of democracy and with their own place in their political systems was assessed. In some countries, respondents were asked about their intention to vote in the next general election. Respondents in all countries were asked how frequently they thought of themselves as European, and about their level of trust toward citizens of other European countries. They expressed opinions for or against the reunification of Germany and the unification of Western Europe. They were also asked to indicate how aware they were of, and how interested in, the European Community and its activities and institutions, and to rate how positively they regarded the European Community and the prospect of their country's membership in the Community. Country-specific questions were asked regarding sources of information about the European Community. Several items concerned respondents' reliance on various types of information media, including foreign broadcasts. Participants were also asked about how the economy, government, and private citizens might be advantaged or disadvantaged by their country's increasing ties with the European Community.
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Reif, Karlheinz, and George Cunningham. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EURO-BAROMETER 1: PUBLIC OPINION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, 1990. ICPSR06104-v4. Mannheim, Germany: Zentrum fur Europaische Umfrageanalysen und Studien/Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung [producers], 2003. Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2005-04-15. doi:10.3886/ICPSR06104.v4
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06104.v4
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: democracy, economic conditions, economic integration, economic reform, European Economic Community, European Union, international alliances, political attitudes, political awareness, political change, political reform, privatization, public opinion, quality of life, social attitudes, social change
Date of Collection:
Universe: Persons aged 15 and over residing in six nations in Central and Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, and the former Soviet Union.
Data Types: survey data
Data Collection Notes:
(1) Due to the producers concerns about respondent candidness, the social desirability of the survey and the fact that people from Central and Eastern Europe had no experience with opinion research special methods were applied for the Moscow and European USSR data to test the validity of the results. These included the interviewers' evaluation of the respondent's openness or honesty and the inclusion of questions about a fictitious group. (2) The single-country datasets for this collection were integrated and processed by the staff of ZA (Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung) in Cologne, Germany, with the support of ZEUS (Zentrum fur Europaische Umfrageanalysen und Studien) in Mannheim, Germany.
Sample: Multistage national probability samples.
Mode of Data Collection: personal interviews
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 1995-01-11
- 2005-04-15 This data collection has been reformatted and updated in conformance with current Eurobarometer processing standards. Many variable names, variable labels, and value labels have been revised to current naming conventions. Some combined variables, like Vote Intention, Income, Region, and Size of Community have been broken out into country-specific variables. Revised SAS and SPSS setup files and an updated documentation file are now available as well.
- 1997-02-13 A single integrated data file has replaced the nine individual-country data files previously released. Revised SPSS setup file and updated documentation are now available as well.
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