American Housing Survey Series

Investigator(s): U.S. Bureau of the Census

The American Housing Surveys (AHS), prior to 1984 called the Annual Housing Surveys, were first conducted in 1973 by the United States Bureau of the Census. This series comprises two types of data collections: a national survey of housing units, and surveys of housing units in selected metropolitan areas. The interviews cover core questions that are repeated each year, and an additional set of questions on recurring or one-time supplemental topics. The national data were collected annually through 1981 and have been collected every two years since that time. The metropolitan-area data are collected on a continuous basis and are reported annually. Through 1996, the national data were released by the Census Bureau in two forms: the National Core File and the National Core and Supplement (called the "National" Files by ICPSR). Beginning with the 1997 data, these were combined by the Census Bureau into one collection, called the National Microdata. The metropolitan-area data were originally released as SMSA Files, MSA Files, MSA Core Files, MSA Core Question Files, and MSA Core and Supplement Files. In 1997, the metropolitan-area data were combined by the Census Bureau into one collection, called the Metropolitan Microdata. Supplemental data on transportation were released in Travel-to-Work Files for some survey years, in addition to the data on this topic contained in the national datasets. Other recurring supplementary topics include mobility, second and mobile homes, disabilities, cars and major appliances, energy conservation, housing modifications, and additional questions on housing and neighborhood quality. An important feature of these surveys is that generally the same housing units remain in the sample year after year, and it is the housing unit rather than its occupants that is followed. For all American Housing Surveys, data collected on income can be used in conjunction with annual housing expenditures to estimate the average percentage of families' and primary individuals' incomes spent on housing. Households that have moved in the 12 months prior to enumeration are asked to provide comparative information on the current and previous residences of household heads. In 1997, the AHS was redesigned to present the data in multiple separate subject-matter files, and computer-assisted personal interviewing software was used to conduct all interviews, which allowed new responses to some questions. Therefore, users are asked to use caution when comparing prior years' data with data collected after 1996.

Most Recent Studies

Related Publications ?

Most Recent Publications

2014
Baxter, Lisa K.,  Sacks, Jason D. Clustering cities with similar fine particulate matter exposure characteristics based on residential infiltration and in-vehicle commuting factors. Science of the Total Environment. 470-471, 631-638.
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2014
Bradshaw, Jonathan L.,  Bou-Zeid, Elie,  Harris, Robert H. Comparing the effectiveness of weatherization treatments for low-income, American, urban housing stocks in different climates. Energy and Buildings. 535-543.
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2013
Coulson, N. Edward,  Li, Herman . Measuring the external benefits of homeownership. Journal of Urban Economics. 77, 57-67.
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2013
Cunningham, Chris,  Reed, Robert R. Negative equity and wages. Regional Science and Urban Economics. 43, (6), 841-849.
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2013
Newman, Sandra J.,  Garboden, Philip M.E. . Psychometrics of housing quality measurement in the American Housing Survey. Cityscape. 15, (1), 293-306.
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2013
Yang, Yizhao,  Stockard, Jean . Do smart-growth environments benefit single mothers? Evidence from thirty MSAs using the American Housing Survey data. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 33, (4), 411-426.
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2012
Bae, Hyunhoe . Reducing environmental risks by information disclosure: Evidence in residential lead paint disclosure rule. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 32, (2), 404-431.
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2012
Choi, Seok Joon,  Kim, Sangsin . Why do landlords include utilities in rent? Evidence from the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study (HDS) and the 2002 American Housing Survey (AHS). Journal of Housing Economics. 21, (1), 28-40.
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2012
Conrad, Daren A.,  Brown, LaTanya N. The impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on the likelihood of African American female homeownership. Review of Black Political Economy. 39, (3), 299-309.
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2012
Do, Chau . Withdrawing home equity: Differences across race and ethnicity. Housing Studies. 27, (3), 299-323.
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