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Spatial Analysis of Crime in Appalachia [United States], 1977-1996 (ICPSR 3260) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

This research project was designed to demonstrate the contributions that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis procedures can make to the study of crime patterns in a largely nonmetropolitan region of the United States. The project examined the extent to which the relationship between various structural factors and crime varied across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan locations in Appalachia over time. To investigate the spatial patterns of crime, a georeferenced dataset was compiled at the county level for each of the 399 counties comprising the Appalachian region. The data came from numerous secondary data sources, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, the Decennial Census of the United States, the Department of Agriculture, and the Appalachian Regional Commission. Data were gathered on the demographic distribution, change, and composition of each county, as well as other socioeconomic indicators. The dependent variables were index crime rates derived from the Uniform Crime Reports, with separate variables for violent and property crimes. These data were integrated into a GIS database in order to enhance the research with respect to: (1) data integration and visualization, (2) exploratory spatial analysis, and (3) confirmatory spatial analysis and statistical modeling. Part 1 contains variables for Appalachian subregions, Beale county codes, distress codes, number of families and households, population size, racial and age composition of population, dependency ratio, population growth, number of births and deaths, net migration, education, household composition, median family income, male and female employment status, and mobility. Part 2 variables include county identifiers plus numbers of total index crimes, violent index crimes, property index crimes, homicides, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, larcenies, and motor vehicle thefts annually from 1977 to 1996.

Access Notes

Dataset(s)

DS0:  Study-Level Files
Documentation:
DS1:  Demographic Data - Download All Files (2,366 KB)
DS2:  Crime Data - Download All Files (2,105 KB)

Study Description

Citation

Cameron, James G. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF CRIME IN APPALACHIA [UNITED STATES], 1977-1996. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Justice [producer], 2001. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03260.v1

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (99-LT-VX-0001)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   crime mapping, crime patterns, crime reporting, demographic characteristics, geographic information systems

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1977--1996

Date of Collection:  

  • 1999

Unit of Observation:   Counties.

Universe:   All counties comprising the Appalachian region.

Data Types:   aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

The user guide and codebook are provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

Methodology

Study Purpose:   The spatial dynamics of crime in nonmetropolitan locations can be understood as a product of social, economic, and demographic influences that are often unique to those areas. Thus there is a need for research on nonmetropolitan crime that takes location and geographic context seriously. This research project was designed to demonstrate the contributions that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis procedures can make to the study of crime patterns in a largely nonmetropolitan region of the United States. The project examined the extent to which the relationship between various structural factors and crime varied across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan locations in Appalachia over time. GIS and crime mapping technologies enabled the researcher to look more rigorously at the spatial patterns and ecological contexts of crime.

Study Design:   To investigate the spatial patterns of crime for this project, a georeferenced dataset was compiled at the county level for each of the 399 counties comprising the Appalachian region. The data came from numerous secondary data sources, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, the Decennial Census of the United States, the Department of Agriculture, and the Appalachian Regional Commission. Data were gathered on the demographic distribution, change, and composition of each county, as well as other socioeconomic indicators. The dependent variables were index crime rates derived from the Uniform Crime Reports, with separate variables for violent and property crimes. These data were integrated into a GIS database in order to enhance the research with respect to: (1) data integration and visualization, (2) exploratory spatial analysis, and (3) confirmatory spatial analysis and statistical modeling. In order to portray the contextual diversity of crime in Appalachia, three different county classifications, each based on different criteria, were employed: (1) Appalachian subregions, consisting of North, Central, and South Appalachia, (2) Beale county codes based on metro-nonmetro designations, population size, and adjacency to metropolitan counties, and (3) distressed county codes based on measures of poverty, unemployment, and per capita income.

Data Source:

Data were obtained from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, the Decennial Census of the United States, the Department of Agriculture, and the Appalachian Regional Commission.

Description of Variables:   Part 1 contains variables for Appalachian subregions, Beale county codes, distress codes, number of families and households, population size, racial and age composition of population, dependency ratio, population growth, number of births and deaths, net migration, education, household composition, median family income, male and female employment status, and mobility. Part 2 variables include county identifiers plus numbers of total index crimes, violent index crimes, property index crimes, homicides, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, larcenies, and motor vehicle thefts annually from 1977 to 1996.

Response Rates:   Not applicable.

Presence of Common Scales:   None.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2006-03-30 File CB3260.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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