What are the sources for the items in the three NCS-R personality modules?
This describes the main scales we used in the NCS-R and then again in the NCS-A:
The questions in the Personality sections include items from the social desirability scale of the Zuckerman Personality Scales and a subset of the screening questions from the screening scale developed in conjunction with the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). The Zuckerman items were included to facilitate the study of social desirability response bias in the survey.
The IPDE screening questions were included as a screening scale for a small clinical reappraisal study of personality disorders that was carried out in a probability sub-sample of NCS-R respondents. This reappraisal study administered the full IPDE. The method of multiple imputation (MI) was used to generate predicted probabilities of DSM-IV diagnoses of Clusters A, B, C, and any PDs (including NOS) as well as diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. The latter two were the only specific personality disorders included in the MI analysis due to the fact that we had a special interest in them and we included the full set of IPDE screening questions for those two but only a subset of screening questions for other personality disorders.
A paper reporting the results of the analysis was written by Mark Lenzenweger et al: Lenzenweger, M.F., Lane, M.C., Loranger, A.W., Kessler, R.C. (2007). DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry 62(6), 553-564.
- Zuckerman Personality Scales:
- Zuckerman M, Psychology of Personality (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1991); Zuckerman M, Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of personality (Cambridge University Press: New York, 1994);
- Zuckerman M, Link K, Construct validity for the sensation-seeking scale, J Consult Clin Psychol (1968), 32:420-6;
- Zuckerman M, Bone RN, Mangelsdorff D, Brustman B, What is the sensation seeker? Personality trait and experience correlates of the sensation-seeking scales, J Consult Clin Psychol (1972), 39:308-21;
- Zuckerman M, Eysenck S, Eysenck HJ, Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons, J Consult Clin Psychol (1978), 46:139-49; Zuckerman M, Kuhlman DM, Personality and risk-taking: Common biosocial factors, J Pers (2000), 68:999-1029.
- ZuckermanM, KuhlmanDM, Joireman J,Teta P,KraftM. A comparison of the three structuralmodels for personality: the big three, the big five, and the alternative five. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993;65.
- International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE):
- Loranger AW, Sartorious N, Andreoli A, Berger P, Buchheim P, Channabasavanna SM, Coid B, Dahl A, Diekstra RFW, Fergusin B, Jacobsberg LB, Mombour W, Pull C, Ono Y, Reiger D, The International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE): The World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration International Pilot Study of Personality Disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry (1994) 51:215-24.
- Loranger AW, Sartorius N, Janca A, Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorders: The International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) (Cambridge University Press: New York, 1996).
We did, however also use some other scales in NCS-A, which include:
- PEB - World Assumptions scale - Janoff- Bulman, R (1989) Assumptive Worlds and the Stress of Traumatic Events: Applications of the Scema Construct. Social Cogintion: 7(2); 113-136.
- PEB - Self esteem scales - Rosenberg Self esteem scale - 81. Rosenberg AA, Kagan J. Physical and physiological correlates of behavioral inhibition. Dev Psychobiol. 1989;22; 753-770
- PEB - Locus of control - Levenson H. Multidimensional locus of control in psychiatric patients. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1973;41:397-404.